WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - GUNTUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - VIJAYAWADA WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - ANANTAPUR WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - CHITTOOR WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - TIRUPATHI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - KADAPA WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - KURNOOL WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - ONGOLE WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - KAKINADA WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - RAJAMAHENDRAVARAM WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - ELURU WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - SRIKAKULUM WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - VISAKHAPATNAM WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - NELLORE
Municipal Corporation'S

Guntur is a city within the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.[4] Located 24 km (15 mi) away from the state capital Amaravati, Guntur city is the administrative headquarters of Guntur district, of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[5] It is a municipal corporation and also the headquarters of Guntur mandal in Guntur revenue division.[6][7] It is situated on the plains at a distance of 40 miles (64 km) to north of the Bay of Bengal. The city is the third most populous in the state with a population of 743,654 and urban agglomeration population around one million as per 2011 census of India.[8][9]

Guntur is classified as a Y-grade city as per the Seventh Central Pay Commission.[10] It forms a part of Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region, a major industrial corridor in the country.[11] The city is known for its chilli, cotton and tobacco exports and has the largest chilli market yard in Asia.[12]

The earliest recorded reference of Guntur comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922–929 CE), the Vengi Chalukyan king.[citation neededFrench astronomerPierre Janssen observed the Solar eclipse of 18 August 1868 and discovered helium, from Guntur in Madras StateBritish India.[17][18] The inscriptions stones in the Agastyeshwara temple in 'Naga Lipi' (an ancient script) dates back to about 1100 CE. It is located in Old Guntur and is considered one of the most famous temples in the city. It is said that Agastya built the temple in the last Treta Yuga around the swayambhu linga and hence it has this name. The 'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region at that time. R.Agraharam and Old Guntur areas are considered to be the oldest part of the city. The region has been historically known for Buddhism and the first Kalachakra ceremony performed by Gautama Buddha himself.[19] The place of Sitanagaram and the Guttikonda caves are referred in the ancient texts (Vedic puranas) going back to the Treta Yuga and Dwapara Yuga.[20]

With the arrival of the Europeans in the late sixteenth century the city attained national and international significance. The French shifted their headquarters from Kondavid Fort to here in 1752, probably because of the ample availability of water due to the two large tanks. This settlement formed the nucleus of the modern city. The Nizams and Hyder Ali also ruled the city until it came under British rule in 1788. It was made the headquarters of a district named after it that was abolished in 1859, only to be reconstituted in 1904. The city rapidly became a major market for agricultural produce from the surrounding countryside due to the opening of the railway link in 1890. The expansion continued post independence as well and was concentrated in what is now called "New Guntur", with many urban areas such as BrodipetArundelpet and suburban areas like Pattabhipuram, Chandramouli Nagar, Sita Rama nagar, Brindavan Gardens, etc.

The city area has been further expanded in 2012 with merger of many villages like Nallapadu, Pedapalakaluru, Ankireddipalem, Adavitakkellapadu, Gorantla, Pothuru, Chowdavaram, Etukuru, Budampadu, Reddypalem.[21]

Geography

Guntur is located at 16.29°N 80.43°E.[22] It has an average elevation of 33 m (108 ft) and is situated on the plains. There are few hills in the surrounding suburban areas and Perecherla Reserve Forest on the north west. The city is around 40 miles (64 km) to the west of the Bay of Bengal on the east coast of India. The Krishna delta lies partly in the Guntur district. There are other smaller rivers and channels in the region such as Guntur Channel, Chandravanka, Naagileru, Guntur Branch Canal[23] etc.

As quoted in NASA's website "it is typical of the wider deltas along the southeast coast of India (known as the Coromandel Coast).[24] The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, and extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna River flows through relatively flat terrain and carries a substantial amount of sediment, especially during the monsoon season."

Climate[edit]

As per Köppen-Geiger climate classification system the climate in Guntur is tropical (Aw). The average temperature is warm to hot year-round. The summer season (especially during May/June) has the highest temperatures, but these are usually followed by monsoon rains. The winter season (from November to February) is the most enjoyable with a pleasant climate. Winter months are usually dry, with little to no rainfall. The wettest month is July. The average annual temperature is 28.5 C and annual rain fall is about 905 mm. Rain storms and cyclones are common in the region during the rainy season, which starts with the monsoons in early June. Cyclones may occur any time of the year, but occur more commonly between May and November.

 

Vijayawada is a city in the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, on the banks of River Krishna in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[5][6][7] The city is the third most densely populated in the urban population of built-up areas in the world and is the second largest city in Andhra Pradesh by population.[8] Vijayawada is classified as a Y-grade city as per the Sixth Central Pay Commission.[9] Vijayawada is the commercial headquarters of Andhra Pradesh. It was recognised as a "Global City of the Future" by McKinsey Quarterly, which expected an increase to GDP of $17 billion by 2025.[10][11] Vijayawada was ISO 37120 Platinum Level certified in October 2018 and has been added to the "Global Cities Registry"

Anantapur (officially=>Anantapuramu[3]) is a city in Anantapur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the mandal headquarters of Anantapuramu mandal and also the divisional headquarters of Anantapur revenue division.[4] The city is located on National Highway. It was also the headquarters of the Datta Mandalam (Rayalaseema districts of Andhra Pradesh and Bellary district of Karnataka) in 1799. It was also a position of strategic importance for the British Indian Army during the Second World War.

Geography[edit]

Anantapuramu is located at 14.68°N 77.6°E.[5] It has an average elevation of 335 m (1,099 ft). It is located at a distance of 356 km from Hyderabad, 484 km from Vijayawada, and 210 km from Bangalore which is the closest international airport.

Climate

Anantapuramu has a semi-arid climate, with hot and dry conditions for most of the year. Summer start in late February and peak in May with average high temperatures around the 37 °C (99 °F) range. Anantapuramu gets pre-monsoon showers starting as early as March, mainly through north-easterly winds blowing in from Kerala. Monsoon arrives in September and lasts until early November with about 250 mm (9.8 in) of precipitation. A dry and mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February; with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range. Total annual rainfall is about 22 in (560 mm).

Chittoor is a city and district headquarters in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also the mandal and divisional headquarters of Chittoor mandal and Chittoor revenue division, respectively.[2] The city has a population of 2,89,625 and that of the agglomeration is 3,53,766.[3]

History[edit]

After the Indian independence in 1947, Chittoor became a part of the erstwhile Madras state. The modern Chittoor District was formerly North Arcot District, which was established by the British in the 19th century had Chittoor as its headquarters[citation needed] . On 1 April 1911, district was split into Chittoor district and North Arcot District.

Pre-history[edit]

The district abounds in several pre-historic sites. The surface finds discovered are assigned to special stages in the progress of civilization. Paleolithic tools were discovered at Tirupathi, Sitarampeta, Ellampalle, Mekalavandlapalle, Piler, etc. Mesolithic tools were discovered at Chinthaparthi, Moratavandlapalle, Aruvandlapalle, Tirupathi etc. Remains of Neolithic and ancient tools were unearthed near Bangarupalem. The existence of megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of burials at Irulabanda, Bapanatham, Valimikipuram (Vayalpadu), Sodum, Velkuru, Nyakaneri, Basinikonda, etc.

Political history[edit]

The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas in the 4th century BC. The district of Chittoor was not a homogeneous administrative unit up to 1911. Its component parts were under the control of various principal dynasties at different periods of times, namely, the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Cholas, Pandyas, Royal of Vijayanagara, Qutub Shahis, Mughals, Asof Jahis, Marathas, Hyder Ali and Tipu of Mysore, and the British, besides minor dynasties such as the Renande Cholas, Banas, Vaidumbas, Nolambas, Western Gangas, Yadavas, Telugu Cholas, Matlis, Uttama Chola, Andiyaman, Siyaganga rulers, Nawabs of Kadapa and Arcot. The Zamindars of Karvetinagar, Srikalahasthi, Punganur and Kangundhi also ruled over this district.[4]

Geography[edit]

Chittoor city lies on the banks of Neeva River at the southernmost part of Andhra Pradesh state. It is located on the NH 69 and NH 40 linking major metropolitan cities of Bangalore and Chennai.

It is located between the northern latitudes of 37" and 14°8" and between the eastern longitudes 78°33" and 79°55". It is bounded on the east by Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh and South by VelloreThiruvallur Districts of Tamil Nadu, on the west by Kolar and Chikkaballapur Districts of Karnataka, on the North Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh and on the south by Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu. In respect of area it takes the eighth place with an area of 15,150 Square Kilometers which accounts for 5.51 percent of the total area of the state. The general elevation of the mountainous part of the district is 2500 feet above sea level. The Chennai & Bangalore cities are located in 150 km. and 165 km. respectively to Chittoor Town.[5]

Demographics[edit]

Telugu is the official and widely spoken language.[7]Chittoor has a population of 353,766[8] and has a sex ratio of 1002 females per 1000 males compared to the state average of 992 females, as of 2011 census.[9] The literacy rate of the City is 90.60%.[10] Chittoor was upgraded as municipal corporation in 2011.

Governance[edit]

Chittoor Municipal Corporation is the civic administrative body of the city. It was constituted as a Grade–III municipality in the year 1917. It was upgraded to Grade–II in 1950, Grade–I in 1965, Special Grade in 1980 and Selection Grade in 2000. On 7 July 2012, it was upgraded to municipal corporation by merging 14 gram panchayats into the corporation and is spread over an area of 69.75 km2 (26.93 sq mi).[11]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture near Chittoor

Chittoor is the district capital and houses many district level government institutions.

Chittoor is predominantly an agro-market place and a major market for mangograinsugarcane, and peanut. Other industries include oilseed, poultry and milk. Tomato farming contributing over 20% of the State's production. Ground nut is the most major commercial crop in the district followed by sugarcane and the major horticulture crop of mangoes. 2nd largest milk producing district with its expansive dairy industries. In the field of Dairy, the district stood first in the state. The district is famous also for textile industries like that of Silk with 13,000 power looms providing employment 40,000 workers. Granite industry famous for its black, pink and grey granites.[12]

Landmarks[edit]

The Swayambu Varasidhi Vinayakaswamy temple at Kanipakam is the famous notable Hindu temple near the city.

Ardhagiri Anjaneyaswamy temple at Aragonda is the notable landmark near the city.

The 11th century historical Chandragiri Fort is the notable landmark near the city.

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[13][14] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English and Telugu.

Engineering colleges=>

Medical colleges=>

Others=>

Transport[edit]

Roadways

APS RTC bus on Chittoor Roads

The city is well connected to major cities through national and state highways. The National Highways through Chittoor City are, National Highway 40 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kadapa and Kurnool on North and connecting Vellore and Chennai on South National Highway 69 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kolar and Bangalore on West National Highway 140 (India) connecting Chittoor with Tirupati and Nellore on East. The city has total road length of 382.30 km.[19]

Public transport

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Chittoor bus station.[20] Bus services are operated to KanipakamTirupatiMadanapalliPalamanerPilerPutturKuppamSrikalahastiNelloreVelloreTiruvannamalaiKanchipuramChennaiPuducherryKolarBangaloreMysoreKurnoolKadapaAnantapurHydrabadHanumakondaWarangalVijayawadaGunturOngoleRajahmundryAmaravati and also to all other major towns and cities in the Chittoor DistrictAndhra PradeshTamilnaduKarnatakaPuducherry and Telangana states.

Railways Chittoor railway station is a National railway station in Chittoor city of Andhra Pradesh. It lies on Gudur-Katpadi Branch line section and is administered under Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone. Nearest Major Railway Junction is Katpadi Junction railway station Tamil Nadu. Just 30 km from Chittoor city. There are direct trains daily from Chittoor to Vijayawada, Kakinada, Kacheguda (Hyderabad), BengaluruThiruvananthapuramNew Delhi to Kanyakumari HimSagar Express and weekly/biweekly/triweekly trains connect Chittoor with MannargudiJammuKatraTirunelveliMangaloreErnakulamVisakhapatnamHatia RanchiSantragachi (Kolkata) and Jayanthi Janata express, etc. which run through Chittoor.

Airports

The nearest domestic airport is Tirupati Airport at Renigunta in Chittoor DistrictAndhra pradesh.

The nearest international airports are Chennai International Airport at Chennai and Kempegowda International Airport at Bangalore.

The Infrastructure Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Limited (INCAP) will build Kuppam Airport at Shantipuram Mandal at an estimated cost of Rs 100 crore .[21][22]

 

 

Tirupati (/\u02c8t\u026ar\u028ap\u0252t\u026a/ (About this soundlisten)) is a city in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Tirupati (urban) mandal, and of the Tirupati revenue division.[6] As of 2011census, it had a population of 374,260, making it the ninth most populous city in Andhra Pradesh.[7] It is the seventh most urban agglomerated city in the state, with a population of 459,985.[4] Tirupati is considered one of the holiest Hindu pilgrimage sites because of Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, besides other historical temples, and is referred to as the "Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh".[8] Tirupati is also home to many educational institutions and universities. For the year 2012–13, India's Ministry of Tourism named Tirupati as the "Best Heritage City".[9] Tirupati has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart cityunder Smart Cities Mission by Government of India.

History[edit]

Ancient History[edit]

Tirumala (Upper Tirupati) This town was an established centre of Vaishnavism around the 5th century A.D. during which it was praised by Alvars. The temple rites were formalised by the Vaishnavite saint Ramanujacharyain the 11th century CE.[citation needed] Tirupati survived the Muslim invasions. During the early 1300s Muslim invasion of South India, the deity of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping. The temple town for most of the medieval era part of Vijayanagara Empire till 17th century and its rulers contributed considerable resources and wealth notable by Krishna Deva Raya and Achyuta Deva RayaSadasiva Raya and Tirumala Deva Raya.

The temple was built and upgraded in parts by various kingdoms. The inscriptions in the temple were found in Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil and Kannada languages [15][16] which specify the contributions of the Pallava Kingdom around the 9th century AD, Chola Kingdomaround the 10th century AD and the Vijayanagara Empire in the 14th century AD.[17] During the 15th century, Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya sung many songs in praise of the holy town in Telugu. He compared it to be divine, including the rocks, streams, trees, animals, and adds that it is heaven on the earth. One example of such a song is=>[18]

Modern History[edit]

In 1932, Tirumala Venkateswara Temple was handed over to Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams by the TTD Act of 1932. In 2006, Tirupati Urban Development Authority (TUDA) and TTD together conducted "Tirupati Utsavam" which focused on the history of development of Tirupati town, kings who visited Tirumala and their contribution for development of the temple.[19] The fourth World Telugu Conference, a conference for furtherance of Telugu language, was conducted at Tirupati during December, 2012 for three days.[20] In January, 2017, the 104th Indian Science Congress (ISCA) meeting was held in Tirupati.[citation needed]

Environment[edit]

Geography[edit]

Tirupati is located at 13.65°N 79.42°E in the Chittoor District of South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. It lies at the foot of Seshachalam Hills of Eastern Ghats which were formed during Precambrian era.[21] One of its suburbs Tirumala, which is the home to Sri Venkateswara Temple, is also located within the hills.[21] Tirupati Urban agglomeration includes Tirupati (City) and census towns Akkarampalle, Avilala, Cherlopalle, Mangalam, Perur, Settipalle, Thummala gunta (part), Timminaidupalle, Tiruchanur, Tirupati (NMA).[22] Tirupati is surrounded by Srikalahasti towards the East, Puttur towards the South, Poothalapattu towards the west and the Seshachalam hills towards the North.[citation neededSwarnamukhi River originates in Chandragiri Hills and passes through the Tirupati City before reaching Srikalahasti in the East.[21]

A board in Tirumala hills briefing details of Eparchaean Unconformity

.

 

Kadapa (alternatively spelled Cuddapah) is a city in the Rayalseema region of the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India . It is the district headquarters of Kadapa district. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 344,078. It is located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Penna River. The city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palkonda Hills lying on the tectonic landscape between the Eastern and Western ghats. Black and Red ferrous soils occupy the region. The city is nicknamed "Gadapa" ('threshold') since it is the gateway from the west to the sacred hills of Tirumala.

Kadapa has been under different rulers in its history, including the Nizams and Cholas, the Vijayanagara Empire and Kingdom of Mysore.

Administration[edit]

Local government[edit]

Kadapa Municipal Corporation logo

The logo of Kadapa Municipal Corporation.

A 4 Lane Service road, NGO Colony Kadapa

The Kadapa Municipal Corporation oversees the civic needs of the city and was constituted in the year 2005. It has 50 municipal wards represented by a corporator through direct election, who in turn elects the Mayor.[16] The District court is located in the city itself.

Culture[edit]

The city has rich culture and heritage with the influence of different dynasties. There are different rituals, customs and traditions with the existence of different religions such as, HinduismIslamChristianityBuddhism and Jainism. The city is known for its historic Devuni Kadapa and Ameen Peer Dargah.

Arts and crafts[edit]

Shilparamam is a crafts village situated in the outskirts of Kadapa.[17]

Cuisine[edit]

Kadapa is well known for its spicy and culinary food which is very similar to the South Indian food. Karam dosa is one of the most favourite item of kadapa citizens. People have Dosaidlysambar and chutney in their breakfast. Ricedaal and curry is usually served as lunch. Most of the restaurants serve South Indian thali including these dishes in their lunch and dinner menu. Although it has a South Indian touch in its dishes it also has a diverse variety of its own which include Ragi Sangati or Ragi Mudda, Boti Curry, Natukodi Chicken, Paya Curry etc. Ragi sangati with chicken curry is the staple food in Kadapa and is also one of the most famous dishes in the city. Many other varieties of dishes can also be found in the local restaurants. Like many other cities of India fast food is also increasing its reach in the city.[18]

Economy[edit]

Employees' Provident Fund Organisation, Kadapa

The economy of city is largely based on Agriculture and Mining. Being a district headquarters all types of Government departments are situated within the city. For most of the families the source of income is through the Government jobs and Private sector jobs in various departments including Bussuiness Shops, Hospitality industry, Marketing . Apart from these Tourism also forms a part of economy to the city. Kadapa is one of the 49 metropolitan clusters selected by McKinsey & Company as growth hotspots in India.[19]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[20][21]

Institutions[edit]

RIMS Medical College Entrance

Transport[edit]

Kadapa City is well connected by Road, Rail and Air.

Roadways[edit]

Pulivendula-Kadapa 4 lane road near Pulivendula

Kadapa has good road connectivity to the other major places like Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Vijayawada. APSRTC provides bus services to various destinations of the Kadapa district and other cities across South India. The city has a total road length of 803.84 km.[22]

Railways[edit]

Long View of Station Building

Kadapa Airport Terminal

Kadapa has its own railway station in the city. It is one of the Earliest Railway station in the state opened around 1866. The Mumbai-Chennai line which happens to be one of the busiest lines in the south cost region passes through Kadapa railway station. It is one of the A category railway station in South Coast Railway zone under Guntakal railway division. A new railway line Kadapa-Bangalore section is under construction stage.

Airways[edit]

Kadapa Airport was opened for air traffic on 7 June 2015. Its located at a distance of 12 km north west of the City.

Kurnool is the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[5] The city is often referred as The Gateway of Rayalaseema.[6] It was the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011 census, it is the fifth most populous city in the state with a population of 460,184.[7][8]

Etymology[edit]

The name Kurnool is derived from Kandanavooru or Kandanavolu. The name Kandanavolu is combination of Kandana and voluKandana means grease. During the days when Bullock Cart is a form of transport, bullock cart riders used to stop on the banks of Tungabhadra River to apply grease to the bullock cart wheels before crossing the river. Hence the name 'Kandanavolu'.[9] Later the name formerly Kandanavolu changed to Kandanavooru, and then gradually to Kurnool.

Geography and climate[edit]

Location[edit]

Kurnool is located at 15.8333°N 78.05°E.[16] It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet).

Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C.Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation.

Cityscape[edit]

Front View of Kondareddy Buruju.

Landmarks in and around the city include Konda Reddy Fort Formerly called Kondareddy Burj is the Historical Monuement and Major Tourist Attraction of Kurnool located at the north east part of the city.[17] Orvakal rock Garderns is the Sculpture Garden with Ancient cave lies on the South East of the city.[18] Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary is a noted wildlife and bird sanctuary that lies in the vicinity of Kurnool, about 45 km away. It attracts lot of visitors from neighbouring states of Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. [19]

 

Gumbad is one the oldest historical monuments located on the banks of Hundri River.

Climate[edit]

The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 46 °C (114.8 °F) in the summer and 12 °C (53.6 °F) to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 705 millimetres (28 in).

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per final data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 484,327, making it the fifth largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh[22].

Literacy[edit]

Literacy in Kurnool[23]
         
All

77.37%
Male

83.01%
Female

71.24%

The literacy rate of Kurnool was 77.37 per cent at the time of the 2011 census.

Religion[edit]

Others include Sikhs & Parsis

Religion in Kurnool[24]
Religion     Percent  
Hinduism

67.19%
Islam

29.21%
Christianity

2.49%
Others

1.11%

As per final data of 2011 census, Hindus formed the majority in the Kurnool urban agglomeration. Other religious groups found in Kurnool are MuslimsChristiansSikhs and Parsees.

Politics[edit]

Shri S.V. Mohan Reddy currently holds the MLA position for Kurnool Assembly,[25] where as Ms. Butta Renuka holds the MP position and represents Kurnool constituency at the Lok Sabha[26]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by Government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[27][28] Pre-schools by Anganwadi Centers of ICDS Dept.

The city has some of the famous institutions for both engineering and medical degrees like Kurnool Medical College (KMC), Pulla Reddy Engineering College etc. The city is having a state famous institution - Silver Jubilee College, established by the Govt. of AP in the year 1972.

Transport[edit]

Roads[edit]

Kurnool is well connected by road with Hyderabad and BengaluruNational Highway 44 (India) connects Kurnool to Hyderabad. The State Highway 51 connects to SrisailamVinukondaGunturVijayawadaNational Highway 40 (India) (new numbering) runs from Kurnool to Chittoor are the major highways passing through the city. The city has a total road length of 519.22 km[29] State owned bus transport system, APSRTC, operates buses from Kurnool bus station to other parts of the state.[30][31]

Railways[edit]

Kurnool railway station lies on the Hyderabad – Bengaluru railway line. It is classified as an A–category station in the Hyderabad railway division of South Central Railway zone.

Airport[edit]

The Ministry of Civil Aviation has proposed to develop Kurnool Airport, a greenfield airport near Orvakal, 25 km from Kurnool city. The airport opened on 8-jan-2019 Airport built on 1,110 acres of land at a cost of Rs. 234 crores and is projected to be commercial enclave by April 2019.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

Kurnool is endowed with good mineral resources. The important minerals are Iron ore, dolomite, limestone, ochre, quartz and silica.[32]

Notable People[edit]

• Kotla Vijayabhaskara Reddy, Ex- Chief Minister, Andhra Pradesh.

 

Ongole is a city in Prakasam district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The Municipality was formed in the year 1876 and was upgraded to Municipal Corporation on 25.01.2012. The city is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Prakasam district. It is also the mandal headquarters of Ongole mandal in Ongole revenue division.[3] The city is the 13th most populous in the state. Ongole is known for its Ongole cattle, a breed of oxen.[4] This is one of the world's major zebu cattle breeds.

Etymology[edit]

Prakasam district was formerly called Ongole district and later, renamed to Prakasam in order to pay homage to the great patriot and ex-chief minister Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu.

History[edit]

The town's history dates from 230 BCE with the era of the Mauryas and Sathavahanas who ruled most of what is now Andhra Pradesh. A few inscriptions dating to the Satavahana period have been found in the village China Ganjam, near Ongole. After the Satavahanas, this place came into the limelight again during the Kakatiya dynasty, when the nearby towns of Motupalli and Voda Revu served as major seaports. Ongole is also mentioned in the inscriptions of the Pallava rulers of the 3rd and 4th Century A.D.

The City was also ruled by Krishna Deva Raya. The last dynasty to rule the Ongole region before the British was the Mandapati Dynasty(Zamindars). According to the historical inscriptions available at Sri Raja Rajeswara Swami Temple complex in Ongole City was constructed by Cholas. Kaasi Visweswara Swami temple, Chenna Keswva Swami Temple and Veeranjaneya Swami temple were built in the early 17th century by King Vankayalapati mantri and Army Chief.

Ongole District came into existence on 02-02-1970 with the carving out portions of Markapur Revenue Division from Kurnool, Ongole Revenue Division from Guntur and Kandukur Revenue Division from Nellore Districts. It was renamed as Prakasam District in 1972 in memory of the eminent freedom fighter, later Chief Minister of the composite Madras State and the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh State, late Andhra Kesari Sri Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu], who was born at Vinodarayuni palem, a hamlet of Kanuparthi village of Naguluppala Padu Mandal of this district.

Geography[edit]

Ongole is located at 15.5°N 80.05°E. It has an average elevation of 10 m (33 ft) AMSL and is situated on the plains. The city is around 15.54miles (25 km) to the west of the Bay of Bengal on the east coast of India. Gundlakamma river's small streams is passing through city

Climate[edit]

Summer temperatures reaches as high as 44 °C (111 °F) during this season (especially during March/May/June) has the highest temperatures.[5], but these are usually followed by monsoon rains and the annual average rainfall 794.5 mm receiving both North-East & South – West Mansoons. The winter season (from November/ to February) is the most enjoyable with a pleasant climate. Winter months are usually dry, with little to no rainfall.The average annual temperature is 24.5 C. Cyclones may occur any time of the year, but occur more commonly October - December.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 2,52,739. The sex ratio of 994 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[7] 19,744 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 10,228 are boys and 9,516 are girls&a ratio of 935 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 83.04% with 153,628 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 67.41%.[8][9]

Governance[edit]

Community Hall

Civic administration[edit]

Ongole Municipal Corporation is the civic body that oversees the needs of the city of Ongole. It was constituted as a municipality in the year 1876 and it Upgraded to Municipal Corporation on 25.01.2012 at the present area of the corporation is 132.45 km2 (51.14 sq mi). The agglomerated villages that were merged into Ongole corporation are=> Cheruvukommupalem, Throvagunta, Muktinuthalapadu, Dsarajupalli, Koppolu, Narasapuram Agraharam, Pellur, Pernamitta, Vengamukkapalem.[10] S. Venkata Krishna is the commissioner of the municipal corporation.[11] The city is one of the 13 municipal corporations in the state and also the Headquarters of Ongole mandal. And also the Ongole is the Head quarter’s of Prakasam District having located a good number of District and Mandal level Offices of the State Government.

There are 6 zones; 50 Election Wards & 36 Revenue Wards. It is the 13th largest city in the state by means of population.

Politics[edit]

Ongole is a part of Ongole (Assembly constituency), representing Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Damacharla Janardhana Rao is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[12] The constituency is a part of Ongole (Lok Sabha constituency) which was won by Y.V. Subba Reddy of YSR Congress Party.[13][14]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture is the primary industry of Ongole, and the city is a major center for tobacco trading in Andhra Pradesh. Galaxy Granite polishing units provide a huge employment source.

Export of oxen

The Ongole Bull(Ongole Gittha)

Ongole bulls are a breed of Oxen that are exported to many countries. The Brahman bull in America is an off-breed of the Ongole. Ongole Island, in Malaysia, holds many Ongole Oxen. The population of Ongole off-breed animals in Brazil is said to be around several millions. The original breed of Ongole stud bulls are found in a small region around Ongole town between the Gundlakamma and Musi Rivers.

Transport[edit]

Ongole railway station

Roadways[edit]

The city is connected by road to major destinations. National Highway 16, a part of Golden Quadrilateral highway network, bypasses the city.[15] National Highway 216 connects the city with Kathipudi.[16] The city has a total road length of 738.50 km.[17] Ongole bus station is owned and operated by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation.[18][19] The station is also equipped with a bus depot for storage and maintenance of buses.[20] The Passengers delight project was implemented at the bus station for improving cleanliness and modernizing it.[21]

Railways[edit]

Ongole railway station is an A–category station located on the Howrah-Chennai main line and administered under Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone. More than 200 Trains pass through this station connecting all most all major cities and most parts of the country.[22]

Airport[edit]

A new greenfield airport was approved for Ongole at near by town namely Donakonda ( the domestic air port of British India) in February 2014.

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[23][24] Instruction in the schools is given in English and Telugu.

The Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) is a medical college in Ongole.[25] Some of the famous educational institutes include QIS College of Engineering and Technology, QIS Institute of Technology,[26] RISE Groups of Institutions,[27] Prakasam Engineering College,[28] and the Pace Institute of Technology and Sciences The Government Polytechnic college located in Ongole is one of the top famous polytechnic colleges of AP

Parks[edit]

Devuducheruvu Park, Rangarayudu Cheruvu Park, Natu Babu Rao Park, CRP Quarters Park, Gandhi Park, Gaddalagunta Park, Nirmal Nagar Park,housing board park.

Tourism & Pilgrimage[edit]

Rajarajeswara Swamy Temple, Kaasi Visweswara Swamy Temple, Chennakeseva Swamy Temple, Valluramma Temple, Panchamukha Anjaneyaswamy Temple, Srigiri Hills, Gandhi Park, Saibaba Temple @ Lawyerpet - 2nd Shiridi, Mallavaram Reservoir (20 km), Kothapatnam Beach (15 km), Chadavalada Ranganayaka Swamy Temple (20 km), Madanuru Temples & Beach (25 km), Kanaparthi Museum (25 km), Ramathirdham Temple & Reservoir (20 km), Jammulapalem - Shivalayam (20 km)

Sports[edit]

Parade Ground

The PDCA-CSR Sarma College Ground is one of the home grounds of the Andhra cricket team, with a first class cricket status and hosts Ranji Trophy matches.[29][30] The ground has recorded the first ever triple century by a wicket keeper in Ranji Trophy, achieved by Srikar Bharat of the Andhra cricket team.[31] The police parade grounds hosted the first state-level Girl Football Tournament in October 2016.[32]

See also

Kakinada (formerly called CocanadaAbout this soundpronunciation (help·info) is one of the largest cities and the district headquarters of East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[4] It is the second most populated city of East Godavari district after Rajahmundry. The city has a population of about 4.43 Lakhs as of 2011 census.

Kakinada is globally known for its sweet called kaaja. Along with these it is also known for its town planning. The Indian Standard Time (IST) passes through this city. Kakinada used to have about 12 cinema halls along a road (Cinema Road) and is known as Second Madras (because Chennai used to have many cinema halls along a road). It is also known for its scenic beach beauty alongside Visakhapatnam.

The city is a home for many Tollywood Film Celebrities namely SuryakanthamRao Gopal RaoKrishna BhagawanGoutham Raju. The city was selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart cityunder PM Narendra Modi's flagship, Smart Cities Mission.[5] It is one of the fastest developing cities of Andhra Pradesh.

Geography[edit]

Kakinada is located at 16.93°N 82.22°E.[15] The 82-degrees east longitude passes through the city. It has an average elevation of 2 metres (6 ft), and many areas of the city are below sea level.[4]

The city consists of two regions, connected by bridges. The southern part, Jagannadhapuram, is separated from the rest of the city by the Buckingham Canal.[16] The canal and its branches form Medaline Island,[17] which abuts the city in the southwest.

An industrial belt and rich, running north-south the length of the city, separates the eastern part from the coast.[18] Kakinada is bordered on the southeast by Kakinada Bay and a marshy wetland, home to India's second largest mangrove forest and the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary.[19] A branch of the Godavari River, the Gouthami, flows into the Bay of Bengal at this point.

Climate[edit]

Kakinada has a tropical savanna climate with hot, humid weather most of the year. The warmest time of the year is late May and early June, with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–108 °F). January is the coolest month, with minimum temperatures of 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the southwest monsoon, although considerable rain also falls during the northeast monsoon (from mid-October to mid-December). Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal frequently strike the city.[20] Kakinada's prevailing winds are from the southwest for most of the year, except from October to January when they are from the northeast. The city's average annual rainfall is 110–115 centimetres (43–45 in).

Governance[edit]

Gold-coloured, seated Buddha statue on a pedestal

Statue of Buddha in Gandhinagar Park

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 17,839 —    
1881 28,856 +61.8%
1891 40,553 +40.5%
1901 48,096 +18.6%
1911 54,110 +12.5%
1921 53,348 −1.4%
1931 69,952 +31.1%
1941 75,140 +7.4%
1951 99,952 +33.0%
1961 122,865 +22.9%
1971 164,200 +33.6%
1981 226,409 +37.9%
1991 279,875 +23.6%
2001 327,541 +17.0%
2011 376,861 +15.1%

Kakinada Municipal Corporation is spread over an area of 161.23 km2 (62.25 sq mi), while the urban agglomeration area of Kakinada spreads over an area of 40.36 km2 (15.58 sq mi). The urban agglomeration constituents include the areas of Kakinada Municipal Corporationcensus towns of Chidiga, RamanayyapetaSuryaraopeta and the out growths of Ganganapalle, Sarpavaram, Vakalapudi and Turangi.[1][24]

Economy[edit]

The economy of the city depends mainly on agriculture, fishing and industrial sectors. paddycoconut are agro products from the city. The majority of the industrial sector is covered edible oil refineries, fertilizers and natural gas.[7] During the late 1940s (around the time of Indian independence) there was little industry in or around Kakinada;[25] the local economy was based on agriculture and fishing. Until the early 1980s (before the fertilizer companies began operation), the local economy revolved around the textile industry, auto parts, steel-related ancillary units, agriculture and fishing.[4]

Kakinada port[edit]

Hope Island, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the coast, makes Kakinada Port a natural harbour.[26] It is home to two ports namely, an Anchorage port and a Deep-water port ( and also third port is going to be constructed in KSEZ which will be Greenfield Seaport ).[27] Kakinada's deep-water port is the second-largest in the state (after Visakhapatnam port) and the first in the country to be built in a public-private partnership, in 1996 It is operated by Kakinada Seaports.[28] Before the deep-water port was built, the Anchorage port was the largest of India's 40 minor ports.[29]

Red-and-white lighthouse at night

The Vakalapudi Lighthouse serves the port of Kakinada.

Kakinada's principal exports include seafood (PrawnsShrimpFish) and related products, agricultural products (including rice and corn,[30] oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, iron ore, bauxite powder and biofuel. Imports include chemicals, edible oils and agricultural products[31] (including wheat and sugar).

Industrial sector[edit]

A number of industries and edible oil refineries, and serves as a base for a thriving oil and gas industry for the state of Andhra Pradesh are established at Kakinada.[7]

Factory with two smokestacks

Godavari Fertilizer plant

Agro−products

Coconuts are exported by several companies in and around Kakinada. The Murugappa Group-owned EID Parry (India) and Cargill International joint venture, Silk Road Sugars, has a port-based stand-alone sugar refinery in Kakinada with a capacity of 600,000 tonnes.[32][33]

Glass-block office building at night

ONGC India—Kakinada office

Edible oil refineries and biofuel plants

In 2002, several edible-oil refineries were established in Kakinada, with a refining capacity of 3,000 tons per day; they include Acalmar Oils and Fats (taken over by Adani Wilmar), Ruchi Infrastructure and Nikhil Refineries. The port facilitates the importation of crude palm and soybean oil.[34]

Bio-fuel is next big bet if crude continues to rise |publisher=Moneycontrol|accessdate=20 November 2011]] Andhra Pradesh has entered into an agreement with Reliance Industries for jatropha planting. The company selected 200 acres (81 ha) of land in Kakinada to grow jatropha for quality biodiesel fuel.[35]

IT/ITES[edit]

Kakinada is a tier-II city. Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) established a facility here in 2007. Since then, several IT companies have come up in the city, mainly due to its educated workforce.[36]

About 35 IT companies are operating in Kakinada. Godavari IT Association of East and West Godavari districts (GITA) is an association of IT companies in the twin Godavari districts and is based in the city.[37]

Resources[edit]

Power generation

There are several power plants in and around Kakinada. Spectrum Power Generation has a 208-MW plant and was one of the first Independent Power Producers in the country. The company is planning to expand the capacity to 1350 MW in phases. Tenders for a 350-MW expansion have been requested.[38] A 220-MW power station (being expanded to 2400 MW at a cost of Rs 100 billion) owned by Reliance Energy[39] and a 464-MW combined-cycle power plant by GVK Group are in operation at Samalkota (Kakinada Rural). These plants supply electricity to the state's transmission utility, AP Transco, under a power purchase agreement.

Natural gas and petroleum

Kakinada is the base for Oil and Natural Gas Corporation's Eastern Offshore Asset. Several oil companies use Kakinada for oil and gasoline shipments. Baker Hughes and Schlumberger are field-development companies working on offshore natural-gas fields near the city. The Krishna Godavari Basin is considered the largest natural gas basin in India.[40] Significant discoveries of oil and natural gas were made by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation and Reliance, which has been extracting gas from its KG D6 block off the Kakinada coast. Reliance has an onshore terminal in Gadimoga, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Kakinada, to process and distribute gas to other parts of the country. Reliance Gas Transportation Infrastructure (RGTIL) has built a 1,440-kilometre (890 mi) pipeline from Kakinada to Bharuch (Gujarat) to transport 120 million cubic meters per day (mcmd) of natural gas from the Krishna-Godavari fields (owned by Reliance Industries)[41] across India to its west coast.

In 2010, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board awarded Kakinada's gas-distribution project to Bhagyanagar Gas, a consortium of GAIL and Hindustan Petroleum.[42] Construction is underway to supply gas to Kakinada and the surrounding towns of SamalkotPeddapuram and Pithapuram, making Kakinada the second city in Andhra Pradesh to have a piped gas supply for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes (along with Vijayawada)

Culture[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Kakinada Gottam Kaja

Kakinada Madata Kaja

Kakinada Beach Festival (also Sagara Sambaralu) is a music festival held in Kakinada.[43] It was declared as an annual festival by the government of Andhra Pradesh in 2012.[44] It is a three-day event where many artists perform.[43][45]Cholligi Teerdham and Nookalamma Theerdham are most popular local festivals

Notable personalities[edit]

The city has its recognition in Tollywood films with notable actors, actresses and directors namely, Anjali DeviSuryakanthamRelangi Venkata RamaiahRao Gopal RaoC. PullaiahP. B. Srinivas,and Chittajallu Srinivasa Rao

Indian crickter BCCI with notable players, Cricketer namely, Hanuma Vihari

Literature[edit]

There are many scholars like Kasibhatta Brahmaiah Sastry, who is a noted Sanskrit and Telugu scholar and who coined the term "Navala" in Telugu literature, Peddada Ramaswamy English literature, Chaganti Koteswara Rao(Hindu scholar), Garikipati etc.

Transport[edit]

The city has various modes of transport in terms of road, rail and sea.[7] The primary mode of intra-city public transport is auto rickshaws and there are about 7,000 of them being operated in the city limits with an additional of 3,000 from the surrounding settlements.[46] Non-transport vehicles cover, Motorcyclesbicycles.[47] For cyclists and motorists, there are planned cycling paths, bicycle sharing stations,[48] and bike hiring outlets.[49]

Roadways[edit]

Kakinada is connected by road to the rest of the state and other cities of India by means of National HighwaysNational Highway 216 which stretches from Kathipudi to Ongole passes through Kakinada.The bypass road is under construction which reduces the traffic in the city[50] It is a well planned city with Grid type Road network.[7] The city has a total road length of 719.21 km.state highway 42 connects Kakinada with other cities [51]

Railways[edit]

Kakinada Town Jn. Railway Station main entrance

Kakinada Town and Kakinada Port are the two railway stations serving the rail needs of the city.[52] Kakinada Town is classified as an A–category station in Vijayawada railway division.[53] It is recognised as an one of the Adarsh station of the division in South Central Railway zone.[54] Samalkot Junction located on Chennai - Howrah Main Line is also the main junction serving Kakinada.Kakinada-Kotipalli Railway line re installed to link Konaseema with main land. Three main trains runs from Kakinada namely, Gowthami Express to Hyderabad, Circar Express to Chennai and Seshadri Express to Bangalore.

Waterways[edit]

Far view of Kakinada port from Beach

Kakinada Port is located on the shore of Bay of Bengal. It is one of the intermediate ports in the state. The National Waterway 4 connects Kakinada with Puducherry and was declared in 2008 as National Waterway by the Inland Waterways Authority of India for cargo transport and tourism.[7]

 

Airways[edit]

The nearest airport is Rajahmundry airport which is 70km from city connected by SH 42

Education[edit]

Main article=> List of educational institutions in Kakinada

JNTU Kakinada Main Gate

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by the government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English and Telugu.

Kakinada is an educational hub, meeting the growing educational demands of the state. Several professional colleges in and around the city offer courses in engineering, medicine, information technology and management at the graduate and postgraduate levels. The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, previously established as Vizagapatnam college of Engineering on military land offers engineering courses and has a business school, and Rangaraya Medical College is a reputed medical college in the state.

P R College is another old and famous college and Shri Peddada Rama Swamy worked as principal for some time. Famous personalities like Devulapalli Krishna Sastri, P V Narasimha Rao, Ushasri were students at that time. PR high school & Christian Missionary school in Jagannadhapuram are the oldest institutions in the Town.

Andhra University Postgraduate Centre, established in 1977, is another college in Kakinada. The university is located on a 50.93-acre (20.61 ha) campus in Thimmapuram, six kilometers from the Kakinada Town Railway Station.

There are a total of 65 Government Schools with 11,240 students studying in them.

Andhra Polytechnic was established in 1946 by British India Government on the land donated by MSN Charities Jagannaickpur. MSN Charities also running so many educational institutions including Vedic school since British era and a Degree College.

Tourism[edit]

Coringa wildlife sanctuary

Kakinada Beach

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, part of the Godavari delta, Hope Island, India, a sandspit formed by the Godavari, Konaseema, scenic Godavari delta islands. It is the second largest mangrove forest in India after Sundarbans.[19]Uppada beach is primarily considered as Kakinada beach which is having one of longest coastlines in Indian beaches.[55] Kakinada beach is meant for its mild blue waters and cold breeze all the day. The famous temples Suryanarayana Swami and Kodandaramalayam are located at G. Mamidada which is 20 km from the city.

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the most popular game in the city, followed by badminton and athletics. Kakinada is home to a number of local cricket teams participating in district and zone matches,[56] with a stadium used for Ranji Trophy matches. The East Godavari District Sports Authority has a sports complex in the city with an indoor stadium and swimming pool. Indian cricket player Hanuma Vihari hails from Kakinada.


Tennis is taught to students by the KTA (Kakinada Tennis Academy) at the tennis courts of Rangaraya Medical College There is a roller-skating rink and Swimming pool in Vivekananda Park.[57]

Rajahmundry, officially known as Rajamahendravaram, is a city located in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is located on the banks of Godavari River. It is a Municipal corporation and also the headquarters of both Rajahmundry Rural and Rajahmundry Urban mandals.[5] It is administered under Rajahmundry revenue division.[6] As per 2018 Census, it is the fourth most populous city in the state, with a population of 782,375.[7] The city is known for its Historical, Cultural, Agricultural and Economic backgrounds[8] and hence, it is known as the Cultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh. The Road cum Rail bridge across Godavari River which is one of the longest of it's kind, connects the city with the town of Kovvur.[9]

Etymology[edit]

The city earlier was called Rajamahendravaram, derived from the Sanskrit name Rajamahendrapuram (The city of King Mahendra).[2] Carrying the same meaning, it is also referred to as Rajamahendri, which during the British colonial era became Rajahmundry.

On 10th October 2015, the State Government of Andhra Pradesh officially renamed the city with its original name.[10]

History[edit]

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Portrait of Nannayya

Painting representing historical significance of Rajahmundry city at a wall in Rajahmundry railway station

Rajahmundry was established by Ammaraja Vishnuvardhana the First (919–934 AD). The city as a prominent settlement can be traced back to the rule of the Eastern Chalukya[11] king Rajaraja Narendra, who reigned around 1022AD.[12] Remains of 11th Century palaces and forts still exist.[13]

Rulers[14]=>

  • Eastern Chalukyas
  • Kakatiyas
  • Reddy and Gajapathi Rulers
  • Vijayanagar Rulers
  • Nizam Rule
  • European Rulers and Zamindars

Rajamahendravaram was under Dutch rule for some time. In 1602, the Dutch constructed a fort here. In 1857, the British conquered the Dutch. They converted it into a jail in 1864 and elevated it into a central jail in 1870. The jail is spread over 196 acres (79 ha) out of which the buildings occupy 37.24 acres (15.07 ha).

In the Madras Presidency, the District of Rajahmundry was created in 1823.[15] It was reorganised in 1859 and was bifurcated into Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari district, which was further bifurcated into East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925. When the Godavari district was split, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari.[16]

Rajahmundry was the hotbed of several movements during India's freedom struggle and acted as a base for many key leaders. When the Indian National Congress had its first meeting in Bombay (Mumbai), two leaders from Rajahmundry, Nyapathi Subba Rao and Kandukuri Veeresalingam, participated in it. Subba Rao, founder of Hindu Samaj in Rajahmundry, was also one of the six founders of India's noted English daily, The Hindu.

The Renaissance of Andhra Pradesh started in Rajahmundry. Kandukuri Veeresalingam is known as the Father of reforms in Andhra Pradesh. He started a monthly magazine Vivekavardhini, and a school for girls at Dowleswaram in 1874. The first widow remarriage took place on 11 December 1881. A society with 16 members was started on 22 June 1884, which used to look after widow remarriages in Rajahmundry. The town hall was established in 1890 by Veeresalingam. Bipin Chandra Pal visited Rajahmundry in April 1905 during the Vandemataram Movement. During his visits, he used to address the public in "Pal Chowk" (the present-day Kotipalli Bus Stand). Annie Besant visited Rajahmundry twice. First, she came during the foundations of a branch of the Divya Gyan Samaj at Alcot Gardens were being laid. She came again during the opening ceremony. Ramakrishna Mission was established in the city during 1950–51 near Kambal tank. The place is now the Ayakar Bhavan.

Rajahmundry is acclaimed as the birthplace of the Telugu language – its grammar and script evolved from the pen of the city-born poet Nannayya. Also known as '\u0100di Kavi' (the first poet) of Telugu, Nannayya, along with Tikkana and Yerrana, translated the Sanskrit version of Mahabharata into Telugu. Kandukuri Veeresalingam – a social reformer and the author of Rajashekhara Charithra, the first Telugu novel – was also from Rajahmundry.

Geography[edit]

See also=> List of cities in Andhra Pradesh

Rajamahendravaram is located at 16.98°N 81.78°E.[17] with an average elevation of 14 metres (46 ft). There is paddy and sugarcane cultivation in the area. River Godavari flows through the west of Rajahmundry.

The Rajahmundry traps, part of the Deccan Traps, are located on the Godavari river and are of particular interest to geologists.[18]

Climate[edit]

The weather is hot and humid, with a tropical climate and, thereby, no distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature is 32 °C. The hottest season is from April to June, with temperature ranging from 34 °C to 48 °C with maximum of 51 °C recorded in May 2002 and May 2007. The coolest months are December and January, when it is pleasant at 27 °C to 30 °C. There is heavy monsoon rain at the end of summer, with depressions in the Bay of Bengal.

Government and politics[edit]

Rajahmundry Municipal Corporation is spread over an area of 224.43 km2 (86.65 sq mi) with 50 wards.[1][22] The Mayor of the corporation is Pantam Rajini Sesha Sai and the commissioner is Sumit kumar Gandhi[23][24] The Government is planning to construct an Under Ground Drianage system in the city.Cite error=> A  tag is missing the closing  (see the help page). It is one of the largest bullion markets in India which consists hundreds of gold, silver and platinum shops throughout the city.

Culture[edit]

Art and crafts

Damerla Rama Rao Art Gallery, dedicated to the works of the artist Damerla Rama Rao of the city has various paintings by him such as Krishna LeelaGodavari of Eastern Ghats and Milkmaids of Kathiawar.[25]

Literature

Nannayya is the earliest known Telugu poet, and the author of the first third of the Andhra Mahabharatam, a Telugu retelling of the MahabharataSri Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919), a renowned social reformer, is widely considered as the man who first brought about a renaissance in Telugu literature and Telugu people; he is also known to have fought for women's issues.[26] General Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton, (15 May 1803 – 24 July 1899) was a British general and irrigation engineer.[27] Sri Adurthi Subba Rao, Prominent Old-time Director & Producer of Telugu Films. Julia Maitland, a campaigner for "native" education, founded a multilingual school and reading room in the town in 1837.[28]

Music and films

Durga Cinetone was the first south Indian film studio, to be built in Rajamahendravaram in the year 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya.[29]

The city has produced many well-known artists in the Telugu film industry such as S.V.Ranga RaoAliRaja BabuJaya PradaSameera Reddy,Bhanupriya,SrimanMeghna ReddyThotakura Venkata RajuUma PemmarajuRamesh, and J. D. Chakravarthy.

Tourism[edit]

Dowleswaram Barrage near Rajamahendravaram on River Godavari

Cotton museum Dowleswaram

The river Godavari and its bridges and the Sir Arthur Cotton Museum[30] are some of the attractions in the city. Rajamahendravaram is a major Hindu pilgrimage site with a number of temples and hosts holy congregations called Pushkaram held once every 12 years —with the last in July 2015, when around 100 millions took bath. The Sir Arthur Cotton Museum in Dowleswaram (beside the barrage) is the only museum for civil engineering in the state.[31]

Transport[edit]

Main article=> Transport in Rajahmundry

Godavari Rail Bridges view from PushkharGhat

Rajahmundry Railway station Entrance

Rajahmundry Airport

The bridges across Godavari River are an important transport infrastructure for connectivity such as, the Godavari Bridge,[32] which is the third longest railroad bridge in Asia;[33] and the Godavari Arch Bridge, commissioned on 14 March 1997 for Howrah–Chennai main line.[34] While, the Old Godavari Bridge (The Havelock Bridge) was the earliest of all, built in 1897 and was decommissioned in 1997.[33][35] New 4th Godavari Bridge is expected to ease some traffic through city.[36]

Roads[edit]

Rajamahendravaram is very well connected to the state and rest of India through NH16 and NH216A.A new Highway from Rajahmundry to Suryapet connects with Hyderabad.

Railways[edit]

Rajamahendravaram railway station is classified as an A category station in Vijayawada railway division.[37] It is located on the Howrah-Chennai main line of South Central Railway zone.[38] As the city lies in the most prominent train route, several trains passes through Rajahmundry railway station making it more accessible. Trains that passes through Rajamahendravaram station are VskpGaribRath (between Visakhapatnam and Secundrabad), Puri Ypr G Rath( between Puri and Yeshwantpur), Konark Express (between Mumbai and Bhubaneswar), Visakha Express (between Bhubaneswar and Secundrabad), Seshadri Express (between Kakinada and Bangalore), Gowthami Express(between Kakinada and Secundrabad) along with many other trains.

Waterways[edit]

National Waterway 4 was declared on 24 November 2008, which connects the Indian states of TelanganaAndhra PradeshTamil Nadu, and the union territory of Puducherry. It passes through KakinadaEluru, Commanur, Buckingham Canal and also part of Krishna and Godavari rivers rivers.[39] It is being developed by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and is scheduled for completion in 2013.[40] But because of the local political leaders failure it is still on paper.

Airways[edit]

Rajahmundry Airport, situated near Madhurapudi 18 km away from the heart of the city.[41] Jet AirwaysSpicejetIndiGo and TruJet are major airliners. The airport has direct services to Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore. A new terminal building was inaugurated on 16 May 2012. Runway is being expanded from the 1,749 m to 3,000 m to facilitate the landing and takeoff of bigger aircraft.[42] People here are requesting for direct flights to Mumbai, New Delhi for connecting to international flights directly and Ahmedabad for business purpose as both the cities are in same field.But the state government and centre government aren't working on peoples choice. The state government is very keen in developing the airport as a national airport and as an alternative for Visakhapatnam airport during bad climatic conditions.[43]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[44][45] As per the school information report for the academic year 2016–17, the city has 55,501[46] students enrolled in 244 schools.[47] The medium of instruction followed by schools are Telugu, English.[48][49] The Railway High School in the city has a history of more than hundred years, established in the year 1909.[50]

The city has one of the thirteen regional offices of the Board of Intermediate Education, which administers Intermediate education (10+2) education.[51] The Government Junior College is the only government run junior college, established in 1974 and there are four private-aided, twenty private-unaided colleges in the city.[52]

The Government Arts College was founded more than 150 years ago by the reformer, Kandukuri Veeresalingam Panthulu.[53] The BEd Training Institute is one of the oldest in India. Adikavi Nannaya University was established in March 2006, named after an 11th-century poet, Nannayya.[54] Other major universities in the city include Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Telugu University,[55] Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University,[56] Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University Study Center.[57] the city contains nannya university as new era

 

Eluru is a city and the district headquarters of West Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[4] It is one of the 14 municipal corporations in the state and the mandal headquarters of Eluru mandal in the Eluru revenue division.[5][6] The city is on the Tammileru river. The city is well known for its wool-pile carpets and hand woven products.[7]. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 217,876.[1] Its history dates back to the second century CE[8].

Etymology[edit]

During the Buddhist kingdom of Vengi, the city was known as 'Helapuri'.[9] It was also known by names such as 'Ellore' .[10]

Geography[edit]

Western Tammileru near Bus Station

Eluru is at 16.7°N 81.1°E and has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft). It lies on the Eastern coastal plains.[21] It is about halfway between the Krishna and Godavari rivers and about 50 kilometers inland from the Bay of Bengal. The Tammileru river and the Krishna and Godavari canals pass through the city, before the river. The Eluru canal from Krishna empties into Kolleru Lake near the city.[20]

Climate[edit]

Eluru experiences hot and humid climate due to its proximity to the shore of Bay of Bengal. It has an average annual temperature of 28.2 °C (82.8 °F). May is the hottest and December is the coolest month of the year. Temperature crosses 40 °C (104 °F) in summer.[4] July receives most precipitation and annually the city receives an average rainfall of 992 mm (39.1 in).[22]

As of 2011 census of India, Eluru had a population of 283,648 of which 140,059 were male and 143,589 female.[24] The Eluru urban agglomeration had a population of 350,000.[2][3]

Governance[edit]

Civic administration[edit]

Eluru District Collector office

Eluru Municipal Corporation is the civic body of Eluru. It was first constituted as a municipality in 1866.[25] It was upgraded to municipal corporation on 9 April 2005 from selection grade municipality.[9] It is spread over an area of 14.50 km2 (5.60 sq mi) with 50 wards.[1]

The present municipal commissioner of the city is Y.Sai Sreekanth and the mayor is Shaik Noorjahan.[26] In 2015, as per the 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan' of the Ministry of Urban Development, Eluru Municipal Corporation was ranked 249th in the country.[27]

Eluru urban agglomeration is spread over an area of 23.85 km2 (9.21 sq mi) and its constituents include Eluru municipal corporation, census towns of SanivarapupetaSatrampaduGavaravaramTangellamudi, and partly out growths of KomadavoleEluru (rural) villages.[6]:54

Law and order in Eluru is maintained with the help of eight police stations, which includes one woman and one traffic police station. These are under the jurisdiction of the 'Additional Judicial First Class Magistrate'.[28]

A view of Police Quarters from Hotel Grand Arya

Politics[edit]

Eluru (Assembly constituency) is one of the constituencies for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Badeti Kota Ramarao is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[29] The constituency falls under Eluru (Lok Sabha constituency) which was won by Maganti Venkateswara Rao of Telugu Desam Party.[30][31] The city is going to be the head office for the Jana Sena Party.[32]

Economy[edit]

Central Plaza: A shopping mall in the city

Since the 17th century, Eluru was known for rug weaving, derived from weavers of Iranian descendants.[10] R.R.PetPowerpetEluru 1-Town area are the commercial centres.[33] TangellamudiSanivarapupeta and Lakshavarapupeta areas of the city are known for the wool pile carpet industry. The eco-friendly carpets are exported to countries like USAustraliaGermany and the UK.[34][35]

Government allotted 1.416 km2 (0.547 sq mi) of land near Vatluru and Bhogapuram for a light combat aircraft manufacturing facility[36] which is estimated to cost about \u20b92,135 billion (US$30 billion).[37]

Culture[edit]

A antique museum is being set up in the city, that will preserve prehistoric tools, idols, and elements found in the archaeological excavations near the city.[38]

Notable personalities[edit]

The personalities from Eluru include Kommareddi Suryanarayana, a Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha member in Indian Parliament and Indian freedom activist; Murali Mohan, a Member of Parliament and Telugu film actor, producer and business executive; Duvvuri Subbarao, an Economist and the 22nd governor of the Reserve Bank of IndiaKurma Venkata Reddy Naidu, a lawyer, professor, Justice Party leader, Governor and Chief Minister of Madras Presidency; Chodagam Ammanna Raja, Indian freedom movement activist and Rajya Sabha member; Mothey Vedakumari, parliamentarian and singer; V. S. Ramadevi, the first woman to become Chief Election Commissioner of IndiaPawan Kumar, former cricketer for Andhra and Hyderabad.

People from film industry are L. V. Prasad, film producer, actor, director, cinematographer and businessman; Pasupuleti Kannamba, actress, playback singer and film producer of Telugu cinema; Vijaya Bapineedu, magazine editor, film screenwriter and director; V. N. Aditya, film director and screenwriter; Sekhar Kammula, film director, screenwriter and producer; Silk Smitha, film actress; Naga Shourya, film actor; Shanmukha Srinivas, film actor and an accomplished Kuchipudi dancer.

Cityscape[edit]

See also: List of tourist attractions in Eluru

View of Buddha Statue

'Buddha park' is in the city and is notable for its 74 ft (23 m) Buddha statue in the Abhaya posture, in the heart of Gaja Vallivari Cheruvu tank which was used as drinking water source for elephants in the Ancient Era.

Kolleru lake is a very large (30,855 hectares [100 sq mi] to 90,100 hectares [300 sq mi]) but shallow fresh water lake, about 15 km from the city. The lake is known for attracting migratory birds from Northern Europe and Northern Asia during the months of October–March and is designated as the Kolleru Bird Sanctuary. As of 2018, the water level has been low in recent years.[39][40][41]

The ‘Holy Land’ of Israel has been replicated on the premises of Fr. Silvio Pasquali Memorial Convent at Duggirala on the city outskirts.[42]

Neighbourhoods[edit]

The city has suburbs such as Ramachandrarao Pet (R.R Pet), Narasimharao Pet (N.R Pet),[43] Pathebada,[44] 1-Town, Powerpet etc.

Transport[edit]

Main article: Transport in Eluru

Fire Station Centre

Departure Block of Eluru New Bus station

The city was once famed for its traffic problems with the railway gates at VatluruVenkatraopetPowerpet, Old bus stand and Eastern Locks areas. When the National Highway passed through the city, the traffic hurried to pass over the railway gates in the city and outskirts, which makes traffic worse.[45]

To avoid the traffic congestion, the government of India constructed a mini bypass road connecting Eastern locks and Vatluru on both ends of the city. Even then, the traffic problem were not resolved. The main bypass road (which was constructed under Golden Quadrilateral programme which was completed in the late 1990s) had only 10,000 vehicles pass through the bypass road; now it has almost doubled.[2]

Traffic in the city of narrow lanes was growing by the day. Even though officials constructed an underbridge at Venkatraopet railway gate and a railway overbridge at old bus stand besides the foot bridge at Powerpet was replaced by another bridge, but the traffic has doubled, without giving any relief to citizens. There are 93 traffic centres identified in the city.[3]

Roadways[edit]

Eluru is well connected to the major destinations through national and state highwaysNational Highway 16, a part of Asian Highway 45 and Golden Quadrilateral highway network, bypasses the city and connects Kolkata with Chennai.[46][47] GNT Road, Mini-Bypass Road, Canal Road and Sanivarapupeta Road are the major internal arterial roads.

The city has a total road length of 227.09 km (141.11 mi).[48]

Mini-Bypass road in Eluru

Eluru is well connected to most of the cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh by road, rail and waterways. The bus, auto and railway are the main modes of transport services. There are about 4000 autos plying in the city.[49]

APSRTC operates its bus services from Eluru Old and Eluru New bus stations[50][51] to parts of the State and to other states.[52] State Highway 43 and State Highway 44 connect Eluru with Sathupalli and Jangareddygudemrespectively.[53] Private bus operators also provide transport services. Motor-driven auto-rickshaws and manual-driven cycle-rickshaws are the other alternative means of transport in Eluru. Private lorries, cars and two-wheelers[45]are common.

Rail[edit]

Eluru railway station

Eluru is classified as an 'A–category station' in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[54][55] Apart from the main station, other stations that serve the city include Powerpet and Vatluru. All these stations are on the Howrah-Chennai main line.Eluru is one of the top 100 booking stations of Indian railways.

Waterways[edit]

Indian National Waterway 4 (NW-4) is under development. The (NW-4) (NW-4) runs along the Coromandal Coast through Kakinada, Eluru, Commanur, Buckingham Canal, and part of the Krishna and Godavari rivers in South India.[56]

Airport[edit]

Gannavaram (Vijayawada) which is 35 km from Eluru is the nearest Airport. Vijayawada airport is well connected to Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru,Mumbai,New Delhi by number of Airlines.

Sports[edit]

Cricket and soccer are the most popular sports in the city. Presently, the city has four stadium out of which Indoor Stadium and ASR Stadium hosted for Ranji Trophy in 1977. Other popular stadiums are Helapuri grounds, C.R. Reddy Cricket Stadium.

Alluri Sitarama Raju Stadium[edit]

ASR Stadium

ASR Stadium was named after Alluri Sitarama Raju.[57][58] It is located at 16°43′8″N 81°6′58″E.

It had earlier hosted a Ranji Trophy match, handball, football and hockey tournaments.[58] The ground first held a single first-class match in 1976 when Andhra Pradesh played Hyderabad in the 1976/77 Ranji Trophy,[59] which ended in a draw.[60] It held Finals of Foodball League of West Godavari Matches in 2016. Current DSDO is Syed Azeez.[61]

Education[edit]

Eluru plays a major role in education for urban and rural students from nearby villages.[62] It has an average literacy rate of 83.90% with, according to the 2011 census, a total number of 155,894 who are literate. This includes, 80,434 men (88.13%) and 75,460 women(79.82%).[63]

Primary and secondary school education is provided by government, aided, and private schools, under the School Education Department of Andhra Pradesh.[64] According to the school information report for the academic year 2016–17, the urban area has around 160 schools. These include government, residential, private, municipal, and other types of schools. There are more than 100 private schools and 49 municipal schools.[65] There are more than 30,000 students in these schools.[66]

Instruction is in EnglishUrdu, and Telugu.

Sri Chintalapati Varaprasada Murthy Raju was the founder of three high schools in the name of Indian freedom fighters: Kasturiba Girls High School, Balagangadhar Tilak Oriental for Sanskrit, Duggirala Gopal Krishnayya. Moulana Abdul Kalam Azad High School is the only school with Urdu as medium of instruction in the district.[62] The Central Board of Secondary EducationSecondary School Certificate, or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education are the types of syllabus followed by schools.

The government plans to set up Municipal Corporation Junior College in the city.[67]. Eluru city has ASRAM Medical college, St Joseph Dental College and many degree and Engineering colleges.

 

 

 

Srikakulam is a city and the district headquarters of Srikakulam district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and also the mandal headquarters of Srikakulam mandal in Srikakulam revenue division.[4][5] As of 2011 census, it was most populous city of Srikaulam district and 24th populous city of the state with a population of 146,988. The city is believed to have been founded by Balarama.

Etymology[edit]

The city was known as Chicacole before Indian Independence.[6]

Buddha statue in Nagavali river, Srikakulam

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 146,988. The total population constitute, 73,077 males and 73,911 females —a sex ratio of 1011 females per 1000 males. 11,607 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 84.62% 96,744 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[7][8]

The Urban agglomeration had a population of 147,015, of which males constitute 73,077, females constitute 73,911 —a sex ratio of 931 females per 1000 males and 12,741 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 115,061 literates with an average literacy rate of 85.71%.[3]

Climate[edit]

Srikakulam has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw).

Civic administration[edit]

Srikakulam Urban development authority is the civic body of the city. It was constituted as a municipality in the year 1856 and was upgraded to corporation on 9 December 2015.[9][1] Its jurisdictional area has an extent of 20.89 km2 (8.07 sq mi) with 36 wards.[1]

The Srikakulam urban agglomeration constituents of the city include, Srikakulam municipality, census town of Balaga, fully out growths of Arasavalli, partly outgrowths of Kusulapuram, Thotapalem, Patrunivalasa and Patha Srikakulam (rural). While, Ponugutivalasa of Santhakavati mandal is now a part of Rajam Nagar Panchayat.[10]

Politics[edit]

Srikakulam is a part of Srikakulam (Assembly constituency) for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Gunda Lakshmi Devi is the present MLA of the constituency from Telugu Desam Party.[11] It is also a part of Srikakulam (Lok Sabha constituency) which was won by Rammohan Naidu Kinjarapu of Telugu Desam Party.[12][13]

Members of Parliament=> 1952, 1957, 1962, 1967, 1972 and 1977 – Boddepalli Rajagopala Rao 1995, 1999 and 2004 – Yerrannaidu Kinjarapu 2009 Killi kruparani 2014 Rammohan Naidu Kinjarapu

Members of Legislative Assembly=> 1983 – Tangi Satyanarayana 1985, 1989, 1994 and 1999 – Gunda Appalasuryanarayana 2004 and 2009 – Dharmana Prasada Rao 2014 – Gunda Lakshmi Devi

Culture and tourism[edit]

Sri Suryanarayana Swamy Temple, Arasavalli

The Arasavalli Sun temple is the abode of Sun god, the idol of the temple was installed by sage Kasyapa and is one of the two sun temples in the country.[14]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[15][16] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

Transport[edit]

Srikakulam bus station entrance

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Srikakulam bus station.[17] National Highway 16 (India), a part of Golden Quadrilateral highway network, bypasses the city.[18]

Srikakulam Road railway station(station code=>CHE)[19] is an Indian railway station in Amudalavalasa near to Srikakulam town of Andhra Pradesh. It lies on the Khurda Road-Visakhapatnam section of Howrah-Chennai main line and is administered under Waltair railway division of East Coast Railway zone.[20]

Sports[edit]

International athletes like Karnam Malleswari (weightlifting) and Korada Mrudula (running, 400 m) are from Srikakulam. Kodi Ram Murthy Stadium near Govt. Degree College is a multi-purpose sporting facility in the town. In 1991, an unofficial cricket match was played between Sunil Gavaskar XI and Kapil Dev XI with both the legends being a part of the game as well. The only swimming pool (maintained by SAAP) is located in Santhinagar.

Visakhapatnam (also known as Vizag (/va\u026az\u0251\u02d0\u0261/)[stress?] and Waltair (/w\u0252lt\u025b\u0259r/)[stress?]) is the largest city and the financial capital[6] of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[7] The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and state headquarters of Indian Coast Guard.[8] Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal.[9] It is the most populous city in the state[10][8][11] with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,018,000.[2][12] With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016.[13][14]

Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, and later ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties.[15] Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom,[16][17] until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century.[15] Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule.[16][17] Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947.

The city is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India.[18] Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, and the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy's Eastern Command and South Coast Railway zone. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is particularly known for its beaches.[19] It is referred to by many nicknames such as The City of Destinyand The Jewel of the East Coast.[8] It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. As per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it was the third 3rd cleanest city in India in 2017.[20]. It fell to 7th position in 2018[21] and to 23rd position in 2019.[22]

The city is situated between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal.[9] The city coordinates lies between 17.7041 N and 83.2977 E.[4][5]

Climate

Visakhapatnam has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw).[5] The annual mean temperatures ranges between 24.7–30.6 °C (76–87 °F), with the maximum in the month of May and the minimum in January; the minimum temperatures ranges between 20–27 °C (68–81 °F). The highest maximum temperature ever recorded was 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) in 1978, and the lowest was 20.0 °C (68 °F) in 1904. It receives rainfall from the South-west and North-east monsoons[5] and the average annual rainfall recorded is 1,118.8 mm (44.05 in).[31]

Language and religion

Religions in Visakhapatnam (2011)

source=> Visakhapatnam city Census 2011 data
         
Hinduism

92.32%
Islam

3.85%
Christianity

3.07%
Others

0.76%

Telugu is the most predominantly spoken language by the native speakers.[38][39] Two dialects of Telugu are spoken by the people, the common dialect and the Uttarandhra (North Eastern Andhra) dialect. The latter is mainly spoken by the people who originally belong to the districts of Vizianagaram and Srikakulam.[40] A cosmopolitan population of Visakhapatnam comprise Tamils,[41][42] Malayalis,[43][44] Sindhis[45] and Kannadigas,[46][47] and also Odias,[48] Bengalis and Bihari migrants from other regions of India.[49][50] There is also an Anglo-Indian community, regarded as the first cosmopolitans of the city.[51]

Hinduism is practised by the majority of its citizens, followed by Islam and Christianity. The area practised Buddhism for two millennia, as evidenced by the many Buddhist sangharamas in the outlying areas but the population of Buddhists has waned, with approximately 0.03% population in the entire city based on the recent census.[52]

Visakhapatnam is one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world,[62] which has a GDP of $43.5  billion. It is the 9th richest city in India.[63] For the FY 2015–16, the per capita income estimates of the city stood at \u20b9283816 and it tops among other cities in the state.[64] The fishing harbour, which was established in 1926, is one of the oldest and largest in the city, and provides livelihood for approximately 50,000 people.[65] The usual seafoodexporting capacity of the harbour is 115,000 t (127,000 tons)[66] and during the FY 2015, it topped seafood exports in terms of value among other ports.[67] Visakhapatnam Port and Gangavaram Port are the two ports of the city and the former one topped charts which handled 60,000,000 t (66,000,000 tons) of cargo during the financial year 2016–17.[68] The Hindustan Shipyard undertakes building and repairing of Naval fleet and has future orders of \u20b92,000 crore (US$280 million).[69]

The growth in the IT sector in the recent times boosting the local economy.[70] In 2016–17, the IT industry in Vizag witnessed an increase in its turnover which recorded as \u20b95,400 crore (US$750 million) with more than 350 firms,[71] in contrast to 2013–14 figures of \u20b91,450 crore (US$200 million).[72] Sunrise Startup Village, an incubation centre;[73] Fintech Valley Vizag, to promote technology in Financial Sector were established.[74] Millennium tower 1 is set for inauguration and Millennium tower 2 is in pipeline to promote fintech investments in the city.[75]

There are many national and multi–national IT/ITes and fintech firms such as IBMWiproTech MahindraKenexaInfotechConduentCyientPaytmConcentrixSutherlandHSBC, etc. Some more investments are in line, like Google X, Lalith Ahuja's ANSR ConsultingFranklin Templeton, Innova Solutions, etc. at Fintech Valley in the city.[76][77] The Brandix India Apparel City is the largest textile park in the country and holds the record for employing more than 15,000 women employees at a single location.[78] The Jawaharlal Nehru Pharma City (JNPC) developed at Parawada near Visakhapatnam in 2,400 acres has major pharma companies like, HospiraMylanEisaiReddy’s LabAurobindo PharmaTorrent pharma, Divis Lab, etc.[79][80][81] Andhra Pradesh Medtech Zone Limited, is the India's first Ultra Modern Medical Equipment Manufacturing & Testing Facility, open to Manufacturers & Innovators.[82]

The prevalence of ferroalloy plants is due to the availability of manganese ore near Visakhapatnam. Aluminium refineries such as Anrak Aluminium and Jindal Aluminium are developing because of the bauxite reserves around the city.[83] Visakhapatnam is a part of the Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR), proposed between Visakhapatnam and Kakinada. The PCPIR is expected to generate 1.2 million jobs and a projected investment of \u20a834,30,000 million.[84] Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant of NTPC Limited is expanding from 1,000 to 2,000 MW at a cost of \u20b950 billion (US$696 million). Hindujas has begun construction of a 1,070-MW thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district at a cost of \u20b970 billion (US$974 million).[85] NTPC is establishing 4x1,000 MW imported coal-based thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district in Andhra Pradesh, which will come up at an investment of Rs 20,000 crore. Approximately Rs 5 crore outlay is needed for generation of one megawatt thermal power.[86] [87]

Landmarks

INS Kursura (S20)

City scape from beach road near tenneti park

Visakhapatnam is one of the main tourism destinations in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is famous for beaches, caves and the Eastern Ghats as well as wildlife sanctuaries. About 30% of the city is covered with greenery.[88]

Major landmarks in the city include Dolphin's NoselighthouseKailasagiriBeach RoadVMRDA ParkVisakha Museum and Matsyadarsini (an aquarium). The INS Kursura Submarine Museum and Anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraftTU 142 Aircraft Museum opoosite to each other is the only of its kind in the world, conceptualizing the hunted and hunter of the wars.[89][90] Indira Gandhi Zoological Park in the city has variety of wildlife species. Erra Matti Dibbalu (Red sand dunes) are situated between Visakhapatnam and Bheemunipatnam are one of the geo-heritage sites in the country. This tourist spot is now protected and preserved as a heritage site.[91] Dr Ramanaidu Film Studio in 33 acres space off the Visakha-Bhimili beach road is one of the film shootings destination. Telugu Heritage museum on atop Kailasagiri was developed by World Telugu Federation and Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority,[92] Vuda City Central Park .[93] Adding one more feather to its cap, Visakhapatnam is home to India's tallest musical fountain opened in the central park. Oscillating vertically at 360 degrees, the fountain dances to the tune of digital music in different colors.[94]

Natural Arch at Thotlakonda beach

Beaches along the coastline of the Bay of Bengal include RK BeachRushikonda Beach and Mangamaripeta Beach. Others are YaradaBheemili, Lawson's Bay, Tenneti, Sagar Nagar, Thotlakonda and Gangavaram beaches.[95]Borra Caves are caves discovered by British geologist William King in 1807.[96] Tyda (an Eco tourism project), Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary under Andhra Pradesh Forest Department are wildlife conservation sites near the city.[90]

Culture

Simhachalam Temple

Poets, artists Some of the notable poets from the city include Sri SriGollapudi Maruti RaoSirivennela Seetharama Sastry.

Religious worships

Some of the religious sites are also of great importance like ISKCON temple;[97] Simhachalam temple of Lord Narasimha 16 km (9.9 mi) north of the city,[98][99] Sri Kanaka Maha Lakshmi Temple. Recent archaeological excavations of Buddhist shrines revealed Buddhist dominance in this area and these are recognised as heritage sites that include Boudharamam, Saligudam, Sankaram and Devipuram etc.

Transport

Main article=> Transport in Visakhapatnam

Visakhapatnam Metro Express Highway Service at Kurmanapalem

Visakhapatnam railway station

The city commuters prefer city buses and auto rickshaws as the primary mode of transport, followed by the two wheelers and cars.[100] Road and rail are preferred for long distance commuting and are supported by Dwaraka bus station and Visakhapatnam railway station respectively.[101][102] It also has sea and air travel infrastructure such as, Visakhapatnam Port[103] and Visakhapatnam Airport.[104]

The APSRTC Visakhapatnam Region operates city, district and inter-state bus services from Dwaraka bus station.[105] There are more than 600 city buses being run in over 150 routes, in addition to Bus Rapid Transit System in two corridors of Pendurthi and Simhachalam.[100]=>21 A planned Integrated Bus Terminal Complex would be built at Maddilapalem.[106] Apart from buses, there are about 25,000 auto rickshaws plying on the city roads which provide intermediate public transport.[100]=>22

Visakhapatnam is the headquarters of South Coast Railway zone of Indian railways. Visakhapatnam railway station is as an A1 station[107] with the highest gross revenue in the Waltair railway division.[108] It serves an average of 20,000–25,000 passengers daily and may rise up to 40,000 during festivals.[102] The country's largest Diesel Loco Shed with a capacity of 206.[109] Visakhapatnam Metro is a planned metro rail project whose first phase is expected to be completed by December 2018 with financial support from the Japan International Cooperation Agency.[110]

Visakhapatnam Airport Terminal

As of 2013, the percentage of transport mode shares in the city are, 18% buses, 9% autos, 15% two wheelers, 2% cars and 55% non-motorised transport (bicycles and pedestrians).[100]=>23The total road network accounts for a total length of 2,007.10 km (1,247.15 mi).[111] NH16, a major highway and a part of the Golden Quadrilateral system bypasses the city. During the 2016-17 fiscal year.

Visakhapatnam Airport (IATA=> VTZICAO=> VOTZ) had served a total of 2,358,029 passengers, an increase of 30.7% from previous year.[112] It handled 19,550 aircraft including 1,421 international and 18,129 domestic.[113]

Visakhapatnam Port is one of 13 major ports in India and the only major port of Andhra Pradesh. It is India's second largest port by volume of cargo handled. It is located on the east coast of India and is located midway between the Chennai and Kolkata Ports. Cruise Shipping is operational between Visakhapatnam and Andaman and Nicobar islands.[114]

 

 

 

 

Nellore is a city and district headquarters of Nellore district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the banks of Penna River[8] and is the fourth most populous city in the state.[9]

Etymology[edit]

A mythological story from Sthala Purana depicts, a lingam in the form of a stone under nelli tree. The place gradually became Nelli-ooru ("Nelli" in Telugu stands for emblica Tree and ooru in Telugu stands for place) and then to present day Nellore.[10][11]

History[edit]

Nellore had been under the rule of CholasPallavaspandyasMaurya DynastyKharavela of Chedi dynastySatavahanasKakatiyasEastern Gangas of Kalinga EmpireVijayanagara EmpireArcot Nawabs and other dynasties.

Nellore existed from the times of the Cholas ruled by Rajendra Chola I under Tanjavur Mauryan empire and was ruled by Ashoka in the 3rd century B.C. Nellore was conquered by the Rulers of the Pallava Dynasty and it was under their till the 6th century AD, subsequently the Chola rulers ruled Nellore for a long period of time. The Telugu Cholas met their decline in the 13th Century.Tamil inscriptions indicate that it formed part of Chola kingdom till their decline in the thirteenth century AD[12] It later became a part of KakatiyasVijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of GolcondaMughal Empire and Arcot Nawabdom. In the 18th century, Nellore was taken over by the British from the Arcot Nawabs and was part of the Madras Presidency of British India.

The city had an important role in the emergence of the Telugu language and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Potti Sriramulu, who fasted until death for the formation of Andhra Pradesh, hailed from Nellore.

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Nellore is located at 14.44°N 79.98°E.[13][14] It has an average elevation of 18 metres (59 ft).[14]

Climate[edit]

The climate of Nellore city is a typical tropical maritime climate, with hot, humid summers and mild winters. April and May are the hottest months and the hot conditions generally last until the end of the June. December, January and February are the coolest months. As the Bay of Bengal is at a distance of 24 kilometres (15 mi) from the city, the sea breeze renders the climate of the city moderate both in winter and in summer. Humidity level in the city is high due to its proximity to the coast. Nellore does not receive the south-west monsoon. Rainfall in Nellore occurs between the months of October and December due to the north-east monsoon. This period gives about 60 percent of the city's annual rainfall. Cyclones are common in the city during this period, causing floods and havoc.[15]

The maximum temperature is 36 to 46 °C (97 to 115 °F) during summer and the minimum temperature is 23 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F) during winter. The rainfall ranges from 700 to 1,000 mm (28 to 39 in) through South West and North East Monsoons. Nellore is subject both to droughts and to floods based on the seasons.[16]

Governance[edit]

Tikkana Park in Nellore

Civic administration

Nellore Municipal Corporation was constituted as a municipality on 1 November 1866 by the Madras District Municipality Act.[24][25] It was upgraded to corporation on 18 October 2004 and has a jurisdictional area of 150.48 km2(58.10 sq mi) with 54 wards.[2] In 2013, fifteen gram panchayats namely, Allipuram, Ambhapuram, Buja Buja Nellore, Chinthareddypalem, Gudupallipadu, Gundlapalem, Kallurupalli, Kanaparthypadu, Kodurupadu, Narayanareddypeta, Navalakulathota, Nellore Bit-I (Kothuru), Peddacherukuru, Pottipalem, Vavilatepadhu were merged into the municipal corporation.[26] Present mayor of the city is Abdul Aziz.[27]

The city is one among the 31 cities in the state to be a part of water supply and sewerage services mission known as Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).[28]

Politics

Nellore is represented by Nellore City assembly constituency and Nellore Rural assembly constituency for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Anil Kumar Poluboina is the present MLA of Nellore City assembly constituency representing YSRCP.[29] Kotamreddy Sridhar Reddy is the present MLA of Nellore Rural assembly constituency representing YSRCP.[30][31] Nedurumalli janardhan reddy former chief minister of combined andhra pradesh hails from this place.

Economy[edit]

Agriculture in Nellore—rice paddy fields

Certain industries like Nippo batteries factory, Apache leather shoes factory etc. have their presence. Proximity to the sea and fertile land towards the east have led to agriculture and aquaculture to prosper. The most productive is the Shrimp culturing.[32]

Culture[edit]

Nellore water tank

The annual Rottela Panduga/Rotiyaan ki Eid is an annual urs event celebrated at the Bara Shaheed Dargah(shrine of twelve martyrs) on the banks of Swarnala Cheruvu.[33] The event got its name after the practice of exchanging rotis(flat breads) and attracts visitors from all religious backgrounds every year .[34] It is also the home for various temples. Famous temples such as Sri Ranganayaka Swamy Temple exist in the heart of the city. Nellore has got many clubs such as Rotary club where one can spend time reading newspapers or playing board games. Nellore is famous for a dish made out of fish known as 'Nellore chepala (fish) pulusu'.

Economy[edit]

A 12,000 acre Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is being set up in the vicinity of the port by the Krishnapatnam Infratech Private Limited, a special purpose vehicle set up by KPCL. The SEZ entails an investment of \u20b96,000 crores and is expected to create 30,000 direct employments.[35] The SEZ is being designed by Mahindra Engineering and is to be a multi-product SEZ.[36]

Transport[edit]

National Highway 16 at Nellore

Nellore Railway Station

Local transport in the city include, two, three and four wheelers.[37] Of these, privately operated auto rickshaws accounts to around 6,000, dominating most part of the city for local commuting.[38] Nellore bus station of the city operates district and long distance services.[39] Nellore is classified as an A grade and Adarsh station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[40] The city also has three small railway stations namely, Nellore South,[41] Vedayapalem.[42] and Padugupadu railway station The Southern Railway operates MEMUs for commuting between Nellore and Chennai Central.[43] There is also a proposal to build a no frills airport for the city.[44]

The city has a total road length of 1,189.95 km (739.40 mi).[45] The proposed Outer Ring Road, existing arterial and internal roads helps reduce traffic congestion.[38] The city is connected with major National highways such as, National Highway 16, a part of Asian Highway 45 and Golden Quadrilateral, bypasses the city.[46]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[47][48] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.[49] Narayana medical college, venkata raja college(vrc) are famous and prestigious institutions. Narayana educational institutions have first started here. It's home for so many intermediate colleges which attracts students from kadapa and chittor districts.

Media[edit]

Zaminryot[50] newspaper and Lawyer weekly newspaper[51] are based out of Nellore. In addition, Eenadu,Vaartha AndhraJyothy and Sakshi newspapers are also printing local editions in Nellore. Deccan Chronicle has also launched their Nellore edition in April 2003 and it is the first English paper to be published from Nellore.

Notable people[edit]

 

 

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