Visakhapatnam (also known as Vizag (/va\u026az\u0251\u02d0\u0261/)[stress?] and Waltair (/w\u0252lt\u025b\u0259r/)[stress?]) is the largest city and the financial capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and state headquarters of Indian Coast Guard. Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is the most populous city in the state with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,018,000. With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016.
Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, and later ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom, until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule. Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947.
The city is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, and the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy's Eastern Command and South Coast Railway zone. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is particularly known for its beaches. It is referred to by many nicknames such as The City of Destinyand The Jewel of the East Coast. It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. As per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it was the third 3rd cleanest city in India in 2017.. It fell to 7th position in 2018 and to 23rd position in 2019.
Visakhapatnam has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw). The annual mean temperatures ranges between 24.7–30.6 °C (76–87 °F), with the maximum in the month of May and the minimum in January; the minimum temperatures ranges between 20–27 °C (68–81 °F). The highest maximum temperature ever recorded was 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) in 1978, and the lowest was 20.0 °C (68 °F) in 1904. It receives rainfall from the South-west and North-east monsoons and the average annual rainfall recorded is 1,118.8 mm (44.05 in).
|Religions in Visakhapatnam (2011)
source=> Visakhapatnam city Census 2011 data
Telugu is the most predominantly spoken language by the native speakers. Two dialects of Telugu are spoken by the people, the common dialect and the Uttarandhra (North Eastern Andhra) dialect. The latter is mainly spoken by the people who originally belong to the districts of Vizianagaram and Srikakulam. A cosmopolitan population of Visakhapatnam comprise Tamils, Malayalis, Sindhis and Kannadigas, and also Odias, Bengalis and Bihari migrants from other regions of India. There is also an Anglo-Indian community, regarded as the first cosmopolitans of the city.
Hinduism is practised by the majority of its citizens, followed by Islam and Christianity. The area practised Buddhism for two millennia, as evidenced by the many Buddhist sangharamas in the outlying areas but the population of Buddhists has waned, with approximately 0.03% population in the entire city based on the recent census.
Visakhapatnam is one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world, which has a GDP of $43.5 billion. It is the 9th richest city in India. For the FY 2015–16, the per capita income estimates of the city stood at \u20b9283816 and it tops among other cities in the state. The fishing harbour, which was established in 1926, is one of the oldest and largest in the city, and provides livelihood for approximately 50,000 people. The usual seafoodexporting capacity of the harbour is 115,000 t (127,000 tons) and during the FY 2015, it topped seafood exports in terms of value among other ports. Visakhapatnam Port and Gangavaram Port are the two ports of the city and the former one topped charts which handled 60,000,000 t (66,000,000 tons) of cargo during the financial year 2016–17. The Hindustan Shipyard undertakes building and repairing of Naval fleet and has future orders of \u20b92,000 crore (US$280 million).
The growth in the IT sector in the recent times boosting the local economy. In 2016–17, the IT industry in Vizag witnessed an increase in its turnover which recorded as \u20b95,400 crore (US$750 million) with more than 350 firms, in contrast to 2013–14 figures of \u20b91,450 crore (US$200 million). Sunrise Startup Village, an incubation centre; Fintech Valley Vizag, to promote technology in Financial Sector were established. Millennium tower 1 is set for inauguration and Millennium tower 2 is in pipeline to promote fintech investments in the city.
There are many national and multi–national IT/ITes and fintech firms such as IBM, Wipro, Tech Mahindra, Kenexa, Infotech, Conduent, Cyient, Paytm, Concentrix, Sutherland, HSBC, etc. Some more investments are in line, like Google X, Lalith Ahuja's ANSR Consulting, Franklin Templeton, Innova Solutions, etc. at Fintech Valley in the city. The Brandix India Apparel City is the largest textile park in the country and holds the record for employing more than 15,000 women employees at a single location. The Jawaharlal Nehru Pharma City (JNPC) developed at Parawada near Visakhapatnam in 2,400 acres has major pharma companies like, Hospira, Mylan, Eisai, Reddy’s Lab, Aurobindo Pharma, Torrent pharma, Divis Lab, etc. Andhra Pradesh Medtech Zone Limited, is the India's first Ultra Modern Medical Equipment Manufacturing & Testing Facility, open to Manufacturers & Innovators.
The prevalence of ferroalloy plants is due to the availability of manganese ore near Visakhapatnam. Aluminium refineries such as Anrak Aluminium and Jindal Aluminium are developing because of the bauxite reserves around the city. Visakhapatnam is a part of the Petroleum, Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR), proposed between Visakhapatnam and Kakinada. The PCPIR is expected to generate 1.2 million jobs and a projected investment of \u20a834,30,000 million. Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant of NTPC Limited is expanding from 1,000 to 2,000 MW at a cost of \u20b950 billion (US$696 million). Hindujas has begun construction of a 1,070-MW thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district at a cost of \u20b970 billion (US$974 million). NTPC is establishing 4x1,000 MW imported coal-based thermal power plant in Visakhapatnam district in Andhra Pradesh, which will come up at an investment of Rs 20,000 crore. Approximately Rs 5 crore outlay is needed for generation of one megawatt thermal power. 
INS Kursura (S20)
City scape from beach road near tenneti park
Visakhapatnam is one of the main tourism destinations in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is famous for beaches, caves and the Eastern Ghats as well as wildlife sanctuaries. About 30% of the city is covered with greenery.
Major landmarks in the city include Dolphin's Nose, lighthouse, Kailasagiri, Beach Road, VMRDA Park, Visakha Museum and Matsyadarsini (an aquarium). The INS Kursura Submarine Museum and Anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraftTU 142 Aircraft Museum opoosite to each other is the only of its kind in the world, conceptualizing the hunted and hunter of the wars. Indira Gandhi Zoological Park in the city has variety of wildlife species. Erra Matti Dibbalu (Red sand dunes) are situated between Visakhapatnam and Bheemunipatnam are one of the geo-heritage sites in the country. This tourist spot is now protected and preserved as a heritage site. Dr Ramanaidu Film Studio in 33 acres space off the Visakha-Bhimili beach road is one of the film shootings destination. Telugu Heritage museum on atop Kailasagiri was developed by World Telugu Federation and Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority, Vuda City Central Park . Adding one more feather to its cap, Visakhapatnam is home to India's tallest musical fountain opened in the central park. Oscillating vertically at 360 degrees, the fountain dances to the tune of digital music in different colors.
Natural Arch at Thotlakonda beach
Beaches along the coastline of the Bay of Bengal include RK Beach, Rushikonda Beach and Mangamaripeta Beach. Others are Yarada, Bheemili, Lawson's Bay, Tenneti, Sagar Nagar, Thotlakonda and Gangavaram beaches.Borra Caves are caves discovered by British geologist William King in 1807. Tyda (an Eco tourism project), Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary under Andhra Pradesh Forest Department are wildlife conservation sites near the city.
Some of the religious sites are also of great importance like ISKCON temple; Simhachalam temple of Lord Narasimha 16 km (9.9 mi) north of the city, Sri Kanaka Maha Lakshmi Temple. Recent archaeological excavations of Buddhist shrines revealed Buddhist dominance in this area and these are recognised as heritage sites that include Boudharamam, Saligudam, Sankaram and Devipuram etc.
Main article=> Transport in Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam Metro Express Highway Service at Kurmanapalem
Visakhapatnam railway station
The city commuters prefer city buses and auto rickshaws as the primary mode of transport, followed by the two wheelers and cars. Road and rail are preferred for long distance commuting and are supported by Dwaraka bus station and Visakhapatnam railway station respectively. It also has sea and air travel infrastructure such as, Visakhapatnam Port and Visakhapatnam Airport.
The APSRTC Visakhapatnam Region operates city, district and inter-state bus services from Dwaraka bus station. There are more than 600 city buses being run in over 150 routes, in addition to Bus Rapid Transit System in two corridors of Pendurthi and Simhachalam.=>21 A planned Integrated Bus Terminal Complex would be built at Maddilapalem. Apart from buses, there are about 25,000 auto rickshaws plying on the city roads which provide intermediate public transport.=>22
Visakhapatnam is the headquarters of South Coast Railway zone of Indian railways. Visakhapatnam railway station is as an A1 station with the highest gross revenue in the Waltair railway division. It serves an average of 20,000–25,000 passengers daily and may rise up to 40,000 during festivals. The country's largest Diesel Loco Shed with a capacity of 206. Visakhapatnam Metro is a planned metro rail project whose first phase is expected to be completed by December 2018 with financial support from the Japan International Cooperation Agency.
Visakhapatnam Airport Terminal
As of 2013, the percentage of transport mode shares in the city are, 18% buses, 9% autos, 15% two wheelers, 2% cars and 55% non-motorised transport (bicycles and pedestrians).=>23The total road network accounts for a total length of 2,007.10 km (1,247.15 mi). NH16, a major highway and a part of the Golden Quadrilateral system bypasses the city. During the 2016-17 fiscal year.
Visakhapatnam Airport (IATA=> VTZ, ICAO=> VOTZ) had served a total of 2,358,029 passengers, an increase of 30.7% from previous year. It handled 19,550 aircraft including 1,421 international and 18,129 domestic.
Visakhapatnam Port is one of 13 major ports in India and the only major port of Andhra Pradesh. It is India's second largest port by volume of cargo handled. It is located on the east coast of India and is located midway between the Chennai and Kolkata Ports. Cruise Shipping is operational between Visakhapatnam and Andaman and Nicobar islands.
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