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Chittoor is a city and district headquarters in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also the mandal and divisional headquarters of Chittoor mandal and Chittoor revenue division, respectively.[2] The city has a population of 2,89,625 and that of the agglomeration is 3,53,766.[3]

History[edit]

After the Indian independence in 1947, Chittoor became a part of the erstwhile Madras state. The modern Chittoor District was formerly North Arcot District, which was established by the British in the 19th century had Chittoor as its headquarters[citation needed] . On 1 April 1911, district was split into Chittoor district and North Arcot District.

Pre-history[edit]

The district abounds in several pre-historic sites. The surface finds discovered are assigned to special stages in the progress of civilization. Paleolithic tools were discovered at Tirupathi, Sitarampeta, Ellampalle, Mekalavandlapalle, Piler, etc. Mesolithic tools were discovered at Chinthaparthi, Moratavandlapalle, Aruvandlapalle, Tirupathi etc. Remains of Neolithic and ancient tools were unearthed near Bangarupalem. The existence of megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of burials at Irulabanda, Bapanatham, Valimikipuram (Vayalpadu), Sodum, Velkuru, Nyakaneri, Basinikonda, etc.

Political history[edit]

The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas in the 4th century BC. The district of Chittoor was not a homogeneous administrative unit up to 1911. Its component parts were under the control of various principal dynasties at different periods of times, namely, the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Cholas, Pandyas, Royal of Vijayanagara, Qutub Shahis, Mughals, Asof Jahis, Marathas, Hyder Ali and Tipu of Mysore, and the British, besides minor dynasties such as the Renande Cholas, Banas, Vaidumbas, Nolambas, Western Gangas, Yadavas, Telugu Cholas, Matlis, Uttama Chola, Andiyaman, Siyaganga rulers, Nawabs of Kadapa and Arcot. The Zamindars of Karvetinagar, Srikalahasthi, Punganur and Kangundhi also ruled over this district.[4]

Geography[edit]

Chittoor city lies on the banks of Neeva River at the southernmost part of Andhra Pradesh state. It is located on the NH 69 and NH 40 linking major metropolitan cities of Bangalore and Chennai.

It is located between the northern latitudes of 37" and 14°8" and between the eastern longitudes 78°33" and 79°55". It is bounded on the east by Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh and South by VelloreThiruvallur Districts of Tamil Nadu, on the west by Kolar and Chikkaballapur Districts of Karnataka, on the North Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh and on the south by Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu. In respect of area it takes the eighth place with an area of 15,150 Square Kilometers which accounts for 5.51 percent of the total area of the state. The general elevation of the mountainous part of the district is 2500 feet above sea level. The Chennai & Bangalore cities are located in 150 km. and 165 km. respectively to Chittoor Town.[5]

Demographics[edit]

Telugu is the official and widely spoken language.[7]Chittoor has a population of 353,766[8] and has a sex ratio of 1002 females per 1000 males compared to the state average of 992 females, as of 2011 census.[9] The literacy rate of the City is 90.60%.[10] Chittoor was upgraded as municipal corporation in 2011.

Governance[edit]

Chittoor Municipal Corporation is the civic administrative body of the city. It was constituted as a Grade–III municipality in the year 1917. It was upgraded to Grade–II in 1950, Grade–I in 1965, Special Grade in 1980 and Selection Grade in 2000. On 7 July 2012, it was upgraded to municipal corporation by merging 14 gram panchayats into the corporation and is spread over an area of 69.75 km2 (26.93 sq mi).[11]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture near Chittoor

Chittoor is the district capital and houses many district level government institutions.

Chittoor is predominantly an agro-market place and a major market for mangograinsugarcane, and peanut. Other industries include oilseed, poultry and milk. Tomato farming contributing over 20% of the State's production. Ground nut is the most major commercial crop in the district followed by sugarcane and the major horticulture crop of mangoes. 2nd largest milk producing district with its expansive dairy industries. In the field of Dairy, the district stood first in the state. The district is famous also for textile industries like that of Silk with 13,000 power looms providing employment 40,000 workers. Granite industry famous for its black, pink and grey granites.[12]

Landmarks[edit]

The Swayambu Varasidhi Vinayakaswamy temple at Kanipakam is the famous notable Hindu temple near the city.

Ardhagiri Anjaneyaswamy temple at Aragonda is the notable landmark near the city.

The 11th century historical Chandragiri Fort is the notable landmark near the city.

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[13][14] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English and Telugu.

Engineering colleges=>

Medical colleges=>

Others=>

Transport[edit]

Roadways

APS RTC bus on Chittoor Roads

The city is well connected to major cities through national and state highways. The National Highways through Chittoor City are, National Highway 40 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kadapa and Kurnool on North and connecting Vellore and Chennai on South National Highway 69 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kolar and Bangalore on West National Highway 140 (India) connecting Chittoor with Tirupati and Nellore on East. The city has total road length of 382.30 km.[19]

Public transport

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Chittoor bus station.[20] Bus services are operated to KanipakamTirupatiMadanapalliPalamanerPilerPutturKuppamSrikalahastiNelloreVelloreTiruvannamalaiKanchipuramChennaiPuducherryKolarBangaloreMysoreKurnoolKadapaAnantapurHydrabadHanumakondaWarangalVijayawadaGunturOngoleRajahmundryAmaravati and also to all other major towns and cities in the Chittoor DistrictAndhra PradeshTamilnaduKarnatakaPuducherry and Telangana states.

Railways Chittoor railway station is a National railway station in Chittoor city of Andhra Pradesh. It lies on Gudur-Katpadi Branch line section and is administered under Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone. Nearest Major Railway Junction is Katpadi Junction railway station Tamil Nadu. Just 30 km from Chittoor city. There are direct trains daily from Chittoor to Vijayawada, Kakinada, Kacheguda (Hyderabad), BengaluruThiruvananthapuramNew Delhi to Kanyakumari HimSagar Express and weekly/biweekly/triweekly trains connect Chittoor with MannargudiJammuKatraTirunelveliMangaloreErnakulamVisakhapatnamHatia RanchiSantragachi (Kolkata) and Jayanthi Janata express, etc. which run through Chittoor.

Airports

The nearest domestic airport is Tirupati Airport at Renigunta in Chittoor DistrictAndhra pradesh.

The nearest international airports are Chennai International Airport at Chennai and Kempegowda International Airport at Bangalore.

The Infrastructure Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Limited (INCAP) will build Kuppam Airport at Shantipuram Mandal at an estimated cost of Rs 100 crore .[21][22]

 

 

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