WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - KAKINADA,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - RAJAMAHENDRAVARAM,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - AMALAPURAM,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - GOLLAPROLU,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - MANDAPETA,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - MUMMIDIVARAM,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - PEDDAPURAM,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - PITHAPURAM,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - RAMACHANDRAPURAM,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - SAMLAKOTA,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - THUNI,EAST GODAVARI WALTP - The Welfare Association Of Licensed Techinical Persons - YELESWARAM,EAST GODAVARI
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Coastal Andhra region of Andhra PradeshIndia. Its district headquarters is at Kakinada. As of Census 2011, it became the most populous district of the state with a population of 5,151,549.[2] Rajahmundry and Kakinada are the two largest cities in the Godavari districts in terms of population.

 

East Godavari district montage

The district of Rajahmundry (present name Rajamahendravaram) was reorganized in 1859 into two districts of Godavari and Krishna. Godavari District was further bifurcated into East and West Godavari districts in 1925.[3][4] After Nov 1956's Andhra Pradesh was formed by combining parts of Naizam, Ceded and Circars, in 1959, the Bhadrachalam revenue division, consisting of Bhadrachalam and Naguru Taluqs (2 Taluqas in 1959 but later subdivided into Wajedu, Venkatapruram, Charla, Dummugudem, Bhadrachalam, Nellipaka, Chinturu, Kunavaram, and Vara Rama Chandra Puram mandals) of East Godavari district were merged into the Khammam district.[5] After June 2014's reorganisation and division of Andhra Pradesh, the Mandals of Bhadrachalam (with the exception of Bhadrachalam Temple), Nellipaka, Chinturu, Kunavaram and Vara Rama Chandra Puram were re-added back to East Godavari District.[6]

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Municipalities
KAKINADA

Kakinada (formerly called CocanadaAbout this soundpronunciation (help·info) is one of the largest cities and the district headquarters of East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[4] It is the second most populated city of East Godavari district after Rajahmundry. The city has a population of about 4.43 Lakhs as of 2011 census.

Kakinada is globally known for its sweet called kaaja. Along with these it is also known for its town planning. The Indian Standard Time (IST) passes through this city. Kakinada used to have about 12 cinema halls along a road (Cinema Road) and is known as Second Madras (because Chennai used to have many cinema halls along a road). It is also known for its scenic beach beauty alongside Visakhapatnam.

The city is a home for many Tollywood Film Celebrities namely SuryakanthamRao Gopal RaoKrishna BhagawanGoutham Raju. The city was selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart cityunder PM Narendra Modi's flagship, Smart Cities Mission.[5] It is one of the fastest developing cities of Andhra Pradesh.

Geography[edit]

Kakinada is located at 16.93°N 82.22°E.[15] The 82-degrees east longitude passes through the city. It has an average elevation of 2 metres (6 ft), and many areas of the city are below sea level.[4]

The city consists of two regions, connected by bridges. The southern part, Jagannadhapuram, is separated from the rest of the city by the Buckingham Canal.[16] The canal and its branches form Medaline Island,[17] which abuts the city in the southwest.

An industrial belt and rich, running north-south the length of the city, separates the eastern part from the coast.[18] Kakinada is bordered on the southeast by Kakinada Bay and a marshy wetland, home to India's second largest mangrove forest and the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary.[19] A branch of the Godavari River, the Gouthami, flows into the Bay of Bengal at this point.

Climate[edit]

Kakinada has a tropical savanna climate with hot, humid weather most of the year. The warmest time of the year is late May and early June, with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–108 °F). January is the coolest month, with minimum temperatures of 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the southwest monsoon, although considerable rain also falls during the northeast monsoon (from mid-October to mid-December). Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal frequently strike the city.[20] Kakinada's prevailing winds are from the southwest for most of the year, except from October to January when they are from the northeast. The city's average annual rainfall is 110–115 centimetres (43–45 in).

Governance[edit]

Gold-coloured, seated Buddha statue on a pedestal

Statue of Buddha in Gandhinagar Park

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 17,839 —    
1881 28,856 +61.8%
1891 40,553 +40.5%
1901 48,096 +18.6%
1911 54,110 +12.5%
1921 53,348 −1.4%
1931 69,952 +31.1%
1941 75,140 +7.4%
1951 99,952 +33.0%
1961 122,865 +22.9%
1971 164,200 +33.6%
1981 226,409 +37.9%
1991 279,875 +23.6%
2001 327,541 +17.0%
2011 376,861 +15.1%

Kakinada Municipal Corporation is spread over an area of 161.23 km2 (62.25 sq mi), while the urban agglomeration area of Kakinada spreads over an area of 40.36 km2 (15.58 sq mi). The urban agglomeration constituents include the areas of Kakinada Municipal Corporationcensus towns of Chidiga, RamanayyapetaSuryaraopeta and the out growths of Ganganapalle, Sarpavaram, Vakalapudi and Turangi.[1][24]

Economy[edit]

The economy of the city depends mainly on agriculture, fishing and industrial sectors. paddycoconut are agro products from the city. The majority of the industrial sector is covered edible oil refineries, fertilizers and natural gas.[7] During the late 1940s (around the time of Indian independence) there was little industry in or around Kakinada;[25] the local economy was based on agriculture and fishing. Until the early 1980s (before the fertilizer companies began operation), the local economy revolved around the textile industry, auto parts, steel-related ancillary units, agriculture and fishing.[4]

Kakinada port[edit]

Hope Island, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the coast, makes Kakinada Port a natural harbour.[26] It is home to two ports namely, an Anchorage port and a Deep-water port ( and also third port is going to be constructed in KSEZ which will be Greenfield Seaport ).[27] Kakinada's deep-water port is the second-largest in the state (after Visakhapatnam port) and the first in the country to be built in a public-private partnership, in 1996 It is operated by Kakinada Seaports.[28] Before the deep-water port was built, the Anchorage port was the largest of India's 40 minor ports.[29]

Red-and-white lighthouse at night

The Vakalapudi Lighthouse serves the port of Kakinada.

Kakinada's principal exports include seafood (PrawnsShrimpFish) and related products, agricultural products (including rice and corn,[30] oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, iron ore, bauxite powder and biofuel. Imports include chemicals, edible oils and agricultural products[31] (including wheat and sugar).

Industrial sector[edit]

A number of industries and edible oil refineries, and serves as a base for a thriving oil and gas industry for the state of Andhra Pradesh are established at Kakinada.[7]

Factory with two smokestacks

Godavari Fertilizer plant

Agro−products

Coconuts are exported by several companies in and around Kakinada. The Murugappa Group-owned EID Parry (India) and Cargill International joint venture, Silk Road Sugars, has a port-based stand-alone sugar refinery in Kakinada with a capacity of 600,000 tonnes.[32][33]

Glass-block office building at night

ONGC India—Kakinada office

Edible oil refineries and biofuel plants

In 2002, several edible-oil refineries were established in Kakinada, with a refining capacity of 3,000 tons per day; they include Acalmar Oils and Fats (taken over by Adani Wilmar), Ruchi Infrastructure and Nikhil Refineries. The port facilitates the importation of crude palm and soybean oil.[34]

Bio-fuel is next big bet if crude continues to rise |publisher=Moneycontrol|accessdate=20 November 2011]] Andhra Pradesh has entered into an agreement with Reliance Industries for jatropha planting. The company selected 200 acres (81 ha) of land in Kakinada to grow jatropha for quality biodiesel fuel.[35]

IT/ITES[edit]

Kakinada is a tier-II city. Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) established a facility here in 2007. Since then, several IT companies have come up in the city, mainly due to its educated workforce.[36]

About 35 IT companies are operating in Kakinada. Godavari IT Association of East and West Godavari districts (GITA) is an association of IT companies in the twin Godavari districts and is based in the city.[37]

Resources[edit]

Power generation

There are several power plants in and around Kakinada. Spectrum Power Generation has a 208-MW plant and was one of the first Independent Power Producers in the country. The company is planning to expand the capacity to 1350 MW in phases. Tenders for a 350-MW expansion have been requested.[38] A 220-MW power station (being expanded to 2400 MW at a cost of Rs 100 billion) owned by Reliance Energy[39] and a 464-MW combined-cycle power plant by GVK Group are in operation at Samalkota (Kakinada Rural). These plants supply electricity to the state's transmission utility, AP Transco, under a power purchase agreement.

Natural gas and petroleum

Kakinada is the base for Oil and Natural Gas Corporation's Eastern Offshore Asset. Several oil companies use Kakinada for oil and gasoline shipments. Baker Hughes and Schlumberger are field-development companies working on offshore natural-gas fields near the city. The Krishna Godavari Basin is considered the largest natural gas basin in India.[40] Significant discoveries of oil and natural gas were made by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation and Reliance, which has been extracting gas from its KG D6 block off the Kakinada coast. Reliance has an onshore terminal in Gadimoga, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Kakinada, to process and distribute gas to other parts of the country. Reliance Gas Transportation Infrastructure (RGTIL) has built a 1,440-kilometre (890 mi) pipeline from Kakinada to Bharuch (Gujarat) to transport 120 million cubic meters per day (mcmd) of natural gas from the Krishna-Godavari fields (owned by Reliance Industries)[41] across India to its west coast.

In 2010, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board awarded Kakinada's gas-distribution project to Bhagyanagar Gas, a consortium of GAIL and Hindustan Petroleum.[42] Construction is underway to supply gas to Kakinada and the surrounding towns of SamalkotPeddapuram and Pithapuram, making Kakinada the second city in Andhra Pradesh to have a piped gas supply for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes (along with Vijayawada)

Culture[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Kakinada Gottam Kaja

Kakinada Madata Kaja

Kakinada Beach Festival (also Sagara Sambaralu) is a music festival held in Kakinada.[43] It was declared as an annual festival by the government of Andhra Pradesh in 2012.[44] It is a three-day event where many artists perform.[43][45]Cholligi Teerdham and Nookalamma Theerdham are most popular local festivals

Notable personalities[edit]

The city has its recognition in Tollywood films with notable actors, actresses and directors namely, Anjali DeviSuryakanthamRelangi Venkata RamaiahRao Gopal RaoC. PullaiahP. B. Srinivas,and Chittajallu Srinivasa Rao

Indian crickter BCCI with notable players, Cricketer namely, Hanuma Vihari

Literature[edit]

There are many scholars like Kasibhatta Brahmaiah Sastry, who is a noted Sanskrit and Telugu scholar and who coined the term "Navala" in Telugu literature, Peddada Ramaswamy English literature, Chaganti Koteswara Rao(Hindu scholar), Garikipati etc.

Transport[edit]

The city has various modes of transport in terms of road, rail and sea.[7] The primary mode of intra-city public transport is auto rickshaws and there are about 7,000 of them being operated in the city limits with an additional of 3,000 from the surrounding settlements.[46] Non-transport vehicles cover, Motorcyclesbicycles.[47] For cyclists and motorists, there are planned cycling paths, bicycle sharing stations,[48] and bike hiring outlets.[49]

Roadways[edit]

Kakinada is connected by road to the rest of the state and other cities of India by means of National HighwaysNational Highway 216 which stretches from Kathipudi to Ongole passes through Kakinada.The bypass road is under construction which reduces the traffic in the city[50] It is a well planned city with Grid type Road network.[7] The city has a total road length of 719.21 km.state highway 42 connects Kakinada with other cities [51]

Railways[edit]

Kakinada Town Jn. Railway Station main entrance

Kakinada Town and Kakinada Port are the two railway stations serving the rail needs of the city.[52] Kakinada Town is classified as an A–category station in Vijayawada railway division.[53] It is recognised as an one of the Adarsh station of the division in South Central Railway zone.[54] Samalkot Junction located on Chennai - Howrah Main Line is also the main junction serving Kakinada.Kakinada-Kotipalli Railway line re installed to link Konaseema with main land. Three main trains runs from Kakinada namely, Gowthami Express to Hyderabad, Circar Express to Chennai and Seshadri Express to Bangalore.

Waterways[edit]

Far view of Kakinada port from Beach

Kakinada Port is located on the shore of Bay of Bengal. It is one of the intermediate ports in the state. The National Waterway 4 connects Kakinada with Puducherry and was declared in 2008 as National Waterway by the Inland Waterways Authority of India for cargo transport and tourism.[7]

 

Airways[edit]

The nearest airport is Rajahmundry airport which is 70km from city connected by SH 42

Education[edit]

Main article=> List of educational institutions in Kakinada

JNTU Kakinada Main Gate

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by the government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English and Telugu.

Kakinada is an educational hub, meeting the growing educational demands of the state. Several professional colleges in and around the city offer courses in engineering, medicine, information technology and management at the graduate and postgraduate levels. The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, previously established as Vizagapatnam college of Engineering on military land offers engineering courses and has a business school, and Rangaraya Medical College is a reputed medical college in the state.

P R College is another old and famous college and Shri Peddada Rama Swamy worked as principal for some time. Famous personalities like Devulapalli Krishna Sastri, P V Narasimha Rao, Ushasri were students at that time. PR high school & Christian Missionary school in Jagannadhapuram are the oldest institutions in the Town.

Andhra University Postgraduate Centre, established in 1977, is another college in Kakinada. The university is located on a 50.93-acre (20.61 ha) campus in Thimmapuram, six kilometers from the Kakinada Town Railway Station.

There are a total of 65 Government Schools with 11,240 students studying in them.

Andhra Polytechnic was established in 1946 by British India Government on the land donated by MSN Charities Jagannaickpur. MSN Charities also running so many educational institutions including Vedic school since British era and a Degree College.

Tourism[edit]

Coringa wildlife sanctuary

Kakinada Beach

Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, part of the Godavari delta, Hope Island, India, a sandspit formed by the Godavari, Konaseema, scenic Godavari delta islands. It is the second largest mangrove forest in India after Sundarbans.[19]Uppada beach is primarily considered as Kakinada beach which is having one of longest coastlines in Indian beaches.[55] Kakinada beach is meant for its mild blue waters and cold breeze all the day. The famous temples Suryanarayana Swami and Kodandaramalayam are located at G. Mamidada which is 20 km from the city.

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the most popular game in the city, followed by badminton and athletics. Kakinada is home to a number of local cricket teams participating in district and zone matches,[56] with a stadium used for Ranji Trophy matches. The East Godavari District Sports Authority has a sports complex in the city with an indoor stadium and swimming pool. Indian cricket player Hanuma Vihari hails from Kakinada.


Tennis is taught to students by the KTA (Kakinada Tennis Academy) at the tennis courts of Rangaraya Medical College There is a roller-skating rink and Swimming pool in Vivekananda Park.[57]

RAJAMAHENDRAVARAM

Rajahmundry, officially known as Rajamahendravaram, is a city located in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is located on the banks of Godavari River. It is a Municipal corporation and also the headquarters of both Rajahmundry Rural and Rajahmundry Urban mandals.[5] It is administered under Rajahmundry revenue division.[6] As per 2018 Census, it is the fourth most populous city in the state, with a population of 782,375.[7] The city is known for its Historical, Cultural, Agricultural and Economic backgrounds[8] and hence, it is known as the Cultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh. The Road cum Rail bridge across Godavari River which is one of the longest of it's kind, connects the city with the town of Kovvur.[9]

Etymology[edit]

The city earlier was called Rajamahendravaram, derived from the Sanskrit name Rajamahendrapuram (The city of King Mahendra).[2] Carrying the same meaning, it is also referred to as Rajamahendri, which during the British colonial era became Rajahmundry.

On 10th October 2015, the State Government of Andhra Pradesh officially renamed the city with its original name.[10]

History[edit]

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Portrait of Nannayya

Painting representing historical significance of Rajahmundry city at a wall in Rajahmundry railway station

Rajahmundry was established by Ammaraja Vishnuvardhana the First (919–934 AD). The city as a prominent settlement can be traced back to the rule of the Eastern Chalukya[11] king Rajaraja Narendra, who reigned around 1022AD.[12] Remains of 11th Century palaces and forts still exist.[13]

Rulers[14]=>

  • Eastern Chalukyas
  • Kakatiyas
  • Reddy and Gajapathi Rulers
  • Vijayanagar Rulers
  • Nizam Rule
  • European Rulers and Zamindars

Rajamahendravaram was under Dutch rule for some time. In 1602, the Dutch constructed a fort here. In 1857, the British conquered the Dutch. They converted it into a jail in 1864 and elevated it into a central jail in 1870. The jail is spread over 196 acres (79 ha) out of which the buildings occupy 37.24 acres (15.07 ha).

In the Madras Presidency, the District of Rajahmundry was created in 1823.[15] It was reorganised in 1859 and was bifurcated into Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari district, which was further bifurcated into East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925. When the Godavari district was split, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari.[16]

Rajahmundry was the hotbed of several movements during India's freedom struggle and acted as a base for many key leaders. When the Indian National Congress had its first meeting in Bombay (Mumbai), two leaders from Rajahmundry, Nyapathi Subba Rao and Kandukuri Veeresalingam, participated in it. Subba Rao, founder of Hindu Samaj in Rajahmundry, was also one of the six founders of India's noted English daily, The Hindu.

The Renaissance of Andhra Pradesh started in Rajahmundry. Kandukuri Veeresalingam is known as the Father of reforms in Andhra Pradesh. He started a monthly magazine Vivekavardhini, and a school for girls at Dowleswaram in 1874. The first widow remarriage took place on 11 December 1881. A society with 16 members was started on 22 June 1884, which used to look after widow remarriages in Rajahmundry. The town hall was established in 1890 by Veeresalingam. Bipin Chandra Pal visited Rajahmundry in April 1905 during the Vandemataram Movement. During his visits, he used to address the public in "Pal Chowk" (the present-day Kotipalli Bus Stand). Annie Besant visited Rajahmundry twice. First, she came during the foundations of a branch of the Divya Gyan Samaj at Alcot Gardens were being laid. She came again during the opening ceremony. Ramakrishna Mission was established in the city during 1950–51 near Kambal tank. The place is now the Ayakar Bhavan.

Rajahmundry is acclaimed as the birthplace of the Telugu language – its grammar and script evolved from the pen of the city-born poet Nannayya. Also known as '\u0100di Kavi' (the first poet) of Telugu, Nannayya, along with Tikkana and Yerrana, translated the Sanskrit version of Mahabharata into Telugu. Kandukuri Veeresalingam – a social reformer and the author of Rajashekhara Charithra, the first Telugu novel – was also from Rajahmundry.

Geography[edit]

See also=> List of cities in Andhra Pradesh

Rajamahendravaram is located at 16.98°N 81.78°E.[17] with an average elevation of 14 metres (46 ft). There is paddy and sugarcane cultivation in the area. River Godavari flows through the west of Rajahmundry.

The Rajahmundry traps, part of the Deccan Traps, are located on the Godavari river and are of particular interest to geologists.[18]

Climate[edit]

The weather is hot and humid, with a tropical climate and, thereby, no distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature is 32 °C. The hottest season is from April to June, with temperature ranging from 34 °C to 48 °C with maximum of 51 °C recorded in May 2002 and May 2007. The coolest months are December and January, when it is pleasant at 27 °C to 30 °C. There is heavy monsoon rain at the end of summer, with depressions in the Bay of Bengal.

Government and politics[edit]

Rajahmundry Municipal Corporation is spread over an area of 224.43 km2 (86.65 sq mi) with 50 wards.[1][22] The Mayor of the corporation is Pantam Rajini Sesha Sai and the commissioner is Sumit kumar Gandhi[23][24] The Government is planning to construct an Under Ground Drianage system in the city.Cite error=> A  tag is missing the closing  (see the help page). It is one of the largest bullion markets in India which consists hundreds of gold, silver and platinum shops throughout the city.

Culture[edit]

Art and crafts

Damerla Rama Rao Art Gallery, dedicated to the works of the artist Damerla Rama Rao of the city has various paintings by him such as Krishna LeelaGodavari of Eastern Ghats and Milkmaids of Kathiawar.[25]

Literature

Nannayya is the earliest known Telugu poet, and the author of the first third of the Andhra Mahabharatam, a Telugu retelling of the MahabharataSri Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919), a renowned social reformer, is widely considered as the man who first brought about a renaissance in Telugu literature and Telugu people; he is also known to have fought for women's issues.[26] General Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton, (15 May 1803 – 24 July 1899) was a British general and irrigation engineer.[27] Sri Adurthi Subba Rao, Prominent Old-time Director & Producer of Telugu Films. Julia Maitland, a campaigner for "native" education, founded a multilingual school and reading room in the town in 1837.[28]

Music and films

Durga Cinetone was the first south Indian film studio, to be built in Rajamahendravaram in the year 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya.[29]

The city has produced many well-known artists in the Telugu film industry such as S.V.Ranga RaoAliRaja BabuJaya PradaSameera Reddy,Bhanupriya,SrimanMeghna ReddyThotakura Venkata RajuUma PemmarajuRamesh, and J. D. Chakravarthy.

Tourism[edit]

Dowleswaram Barrage near Rajamahendravaram on River Godavari

Cotton museum Dowleswaram

The river Godavari and its bridges and the Sir Arthur Cotton Museum[30] are some of the attractions in the city. Rajamahendravaram is a major Hindu pilgrimage site with a number of temples and hosts holy congregations called Pushkaram held once every 12 years —with the last in July 2015, when around 100 millions took bath. The Sir Arthur Cotton Museum in Dowleswaram (beside the barrage) is the only museum for civil engineering in the state.[31]

Transport[edit]

Main article=> Transport in Rajahmundry

Godavari Rail Bridges view from PushkharGhat

Rajahmundry Railway station Entrance

Rajahmundry Airport

The bridges across Godavari River are an important transport infrastructure for connectivity such as, the Godavari Bridge,[32] which is the third longest railroad bridge in Asia;[33] and the Godavari Arch Bridge, commissioned on 14 March 1997 for Howrah–Chennai main line.[34] While, the Old Godavari Bridge (The Havelock Bridge) was the earliest of all, built in 1897 and was decommissioned in 1997.[33][35] New 4th Godavari Bridge is expected to ease some traffic through city.[36]

Roads[edit]

Rajamahendravaram is very well connected to the state and rest of India through NH16 and NH216A.A new Highway from Rajahmundry to Suryapet connects with Hyderabad.

Railways[edit]

Rajamahendravaram railway station is classified as an A category station in Vijayawada railway division.[37] It is located on the Howrah-Chennai main line of South Central Railway zone.[38] As the city lies in the most prominent train route, several trains passes through Rajahmundry railway station making it more accessible. Trains that passes through Rajamahendravaram station are VskpGaribRath (between Visakhapatnam and Secundrabad), Puri Ypr G Rath( between Puri and Yeshwantpur), Konark Express (between Mumbai and Bhubaneswar), Visakha Express (between Bhubaneswar and Secundrabad), Seshadri Express (between Kakinada and Bangalore), Gowthami Express(between Kakinada and Secundrabad) along with many other trains.

Waterways[edit]

National Waterway 4 was declared on 24 November 2008, which connects the Indian states of TelanganaAndhra PradeshTamil Nadu, and the union territory of Puducherry. It passes through KakinadaEluru, Commanur, Buckingham Canal and also part of Krishna and Godavari rivers rivers.[39] It is being developed by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and is scheduled for completion in 2013.[40] But because of the local political leaders failure it is still on paper.

Airways[edit]

Rajahmundry Airport, situated near Madhurapudi 18 km away from the heart of the city.[41] Jet AirwaysSpicejetIndiGo and TruJet are major airliners. The airport has direct services to Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore. A new terminal building was inaugurated on 16 May 2012. Runway is being expanded from the 1,749 m to 3,000 m to facilitate the landing and takeoff of bigger aircraft.[42] People here are requesting for direct flights to Mumbai, New Delhi for connecting to international flights directly and Ahmedabad for business purpose as both the cities are in same field.But the state government and centre government aren't working on peoples choice. The state government is very keen in developing the airport as a national airport and as an alternative for Visakhapatnam airport during bad climatic conditions.[43]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[44][45] As per the school information report for the academic year 2016–17, the city has 55,501[46] students enrolled in 244 schools.[47] The medium of instruction followed by schools are Telugu, English.[48][49] The Railway High School in the city has a history of more than hundred years, established in the year 1909.[50]

The city has one of the thirteen regional offices of the Board of Intermediate Education, which administers Intermediate education (10+2) education.[51] The Government Junior College is the only government run junior college, established in 1974 and there are four private-aided, twenty private-unaided colleges in the city.[52]

The Government Arts College was founded more than 150 years ago by the reformer, Kandukuri Veeresalingam Panthulu.[53] The BEd Training Institute is one of the oldest in India. Adikavi Nannaya University was established in March 2006, named after an 11th-century poet, Nannayya.[54] Other major universities in the city include Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Telugu University,[55] Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University,[56] Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University Study Center.[57] the city contains nannya university as new era

 

AMALAPURAM

Amalapuram is a town in East Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the mandal and divisional headquarters of Amalapuram mandal and Amalapuram revenue division.[4][5] The town is situated in the delta of Konaseema.[6]

History[edit]

Godavari River in Pasarlapudi village near Amalapuram

Amalapuram was originally named Amrutpuri which later changed to Amlipuri. Some of its temples are dedicated to Amaleswarudu.

Amalapuram is also called Panchalingapuram as it is the seat of five temples to Shiva as Amaleswaudu, Sidheswarudu, Ramalingeswarudu, Chandramouleeswarudu and Chennamalleeswarudu. Amalapuram is the third most developed town in East Godavari district after Rajahmundry and Kakinada. It is hub of Konaseema for education and financial institutes. There are approximately 65 schools and colleges, six engineering colleges and one medical college in the area. It is one among few parliament constituencies in India which do not have a railway connectivity.

Geography[edit]

Amalapuram is spread over an area of 7.20 km2 (2.78 sq mi).[4] It is located at 16.5787°N 82.0061°E. It has an average elevation of 2 m (6 ft 7 in).

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[7] Amalapuram has a population of 141,194, with 70,850 males and 70,344 females. Amalapuram has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; 80.68% of males and 73.54% of females are literate. 77,036 people reside in rural parts of Amalapuram while 64,158 people reside in the Amalapuram urban area.

Governance[edit]

Politics[edit]

Government Office in Amalapuram

GMC Balayogi(To the left),Former Speaker of Parliament

Amalapuram is one of the 25 Lok Sabha constituencies in Andhra Pradesh. The other two Lok Sabha constituencies in the East Godavari district are Rajamundry and Kakinada.

Transport[edit]

A Ferry in Godavari river

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Amalapuram bus station.[8]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[9][10] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, and Telugu.

Notable persons[edit]

Sri Bhamidipati Krishna Mohan (Former MP Rajya Sabha, Chairman South Central Railway Recruitment Board, Member of UPSC)

 

GOLLAPROLU

NAGAR PANCHAYATH

Gollaprolu is a town in East Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a Municipality in Gollaprolu mandal of Kakinada revenue division.[2] The town also forms a part of Godavari Urban Development Authority.[3]

Geography[edit]

The region is cyclone-prone with agricultural dependant.[4] The villagers are known for growing one of the most sought after varieties of hot pepper and is famous for the production of onions, ground nuts, cotton and rice.[5]

Governance[edit]

The town was upgraded from Gram panchayat to Municipality on 23 June 2011. Commissioner B. Nageswararao

Education[edit]

Sri Seth Peraji Lumbaji Zilla Parishat High School

MANDAPETA

Mandapeta, also called as Mandavyapuram is a town and an A-grade municipality in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a market place and a place of recreation for many surrounding villages and it is famous for its rice mills.[5]

Climate[edit]

Mandapeta mandal receives a cumulative average annual rainfall of 1037.2mm.[6]

Geology[edit]

Mandapeta is located in the East Godavari Sub basin of the larger Krishna Godavari Basin.

Both Oil and Natural Gas reserves have been found in the Mandapeta formation.[7] ONGC plans to drill wells in the onland blocks in Mandapeta to assess the potential of shale.[8]

Demographics[edit]

As per 2011 census, the urban agglomeration is home to about 56,063 people. Among them, about 49% are male and about 51% are female, Population density of the town is 2477 persons per km2. 88% of the whole population are from General category, 11% are from Scheduled castes and 1% are Scheduled tribes. Child population (aged under 6 years) of Mandapeta municipality is 9% of the total population in which 52% are boys and 48% are girls. There are about 15,000 households in the town.[9]

Education[edit]

The Primary and Secondary School Education is imparted by Government, Aided and Private schools, There are many reputed schools and colleges in and around the town under the School Education Department of the state.[10][11] The mediums of instruction followed are English & Telugu.

There is a non-residential Government Junior College for both boys & girls. It was established in 1969. The medium of instruction is Telugu.[12] There are many Private Junior Colleges too.

Transport[edit]

Mandapeta is well connected with roads. The road that runs towards Alamuru connects the town at Jonnada with National Highway 16 that runs from Kolkata to Chennai. Most of the buses that depart from Kakinada towards VijayawadaHyderabadBengaluru and other locations in South Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema pass through Mandapeta. SH 102 connecting Dwarapudi and Yanam passes through Mandapeta connecting it to TapeswaramDraksharama and through Dwarapudi to Rajahmundry via SH 40. The roads connecting Mandapeta to Dulla, Kapileswarapuram and Jonnada were also among the existing state highways of Andhra Pradesh.[13]

The nearest railway station to Mandapeta is at Dwarapudi which is 8 km away. Nearest major railway sation is Rajahmundry railway station which is 26 km away.

Mandapeta has no operational water transport system nearby. However, Small boats do use the canals and pass through the Tapeswaram Locks nearby occasionally.

At a distance of about 40 km, the nearest airport is the Rajahmundry Airport with daily flights to Hyderabad, Chennai and Bengaluru. The nearest international airport is the Vijayawada International Airport which is 160 km away.

 

MUMMIDIVARAM

NAGAR PANCHAYATH

Mummidi-varam is a town in East Godavari district of Andhra PradeshIndia. The Mummidivaram revenue block was formed out of the Amalapuram tehsil in July 1969. It is the second largest town in Konaseema.

 

Geography[edit]

Mummidivaram is located at 16.6500°N 82.1167°E.[2] It has an average elevation of 0 meters (0 feet).

Governance[edit]

The town was upgraded from Gram panchayat to Nagar panchayat on 23 June 2011.[3]

Politics[edit]

Mummidivaram is an assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh. There are 1,89,229 registered voters as on 10.01.2012 in Mummidivaram constituency (2nd largest in East Godavari district).

List of Elected Members=>[4]

  • 1978 - Moka Sri Vishnu Prasada Rao
  • 1983 - Valtati Raja sakkubai
  • 1985 - Pandu Krishna Murti
  • 1989 and 1994 - Battina Subba Rao
  • 1999 - GMC Balayogi and Chelli Vivekananda
  • 2004 - Pinipe Viswarupu
  • 2009 - Ponnada Satish
  • 2014 - Datla Subba Raju(Bucchi Babu)

Late GMC Balayogi also served as Member of Parliament for Amalapuram and was a Loksabha speaker. During his tenure the Konaseema area saw major developments and he played a key role in the construction of various bridges across the Godavari river. The people of Konaseema revere him as their hero and his statues were worshiped across the Konaseema area.

References

PEDDAPURAM

Peddapuram is a town in the East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh in South India.[3] The town also forms a part of Godavari Urban Development Authority.[4]

Geography[edit]

Peddapuram is located at 17.08°N 82.13°E.[5] It has an average elevation of 35 metres (114 feet). Its located next to Kakinada

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 49,477. The total population constitute, 24,334 males, 25,143 females and 4,912 children, in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 76.14% with 33,930 literates, higher than the national average of 73.00%.[6]

History[edit]

By the time of 1785 the Peddapuram Estate extended from Totapalli to Nagaram encompassing villages and towns. During the British rule, Sri Raya Jagapati was chosen to take over the estate in 1802. After Sri Raya Jagapati’s death, the three wives, Lakshmi NarasayyammaBucchi Seetayyamma and Bucchi Bangaramma, ruled the estate in succession. Raya Jagapati's widow Bucchi Seetayyamma, ruled from 1828-1835. She founded two trusts for the poor, one in Peddapuram and another in Kattipudi in East Godavari. You can find some ancient caves with the supposed footprints of Bhima (Pandavas). For more details on the history of Pandavula Metta visit the link=>[7] test

Civic administration[edit]

Portico of an old house in Peddapuram town

Peddapuram municipality was established in 1915 and became the second oldest municipality after Bheemunipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. Initially the British appointed Sri V. K. Anantakrishna Ayyar followed by Sri Abhinava Patnayak and Sri Pingali Krishnarao. Sri Goli Pedda Kondayya was the first one direct elected as Chairman of the municipality.

Education[edit]

The first school was established here in Peddapuram[8] in 1891[9] by the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church Society[9] which also had boarding facilities. Among the eminent personalities who studied in this school include Archbishop Marampudi Joji and M. Victor Paul.

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[10][11] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

An Agricultural Research Station which does Research on Ragi and Tapioca and is affiliated to Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University. Sri Veerraju High School is one of the oldest school which is imparting elementary and high school education to many students without any profit motive. S.R.V.B.S.J.B. M.R. College has completed 50 years; it celebrated its Golden Jubilee on 4 February 2018 by its old students association, considered a very prestigious college, was established in 1967 by Sri S.B.P.B.K.Satyanarayana Rao, then Zilla Parishad chairman as the founder president in memory of Maharani of Peddapuram Samsthanam Peddapuram Kings Srimati Raja Vatsavayi Bucchi Sitayamma Jagapati Bahadur.

In order to provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominantly from the rural areas, without regard to their family socio-economic conditions, the Government of India established Navodaya Vidyalayas, on an average, one in each district of the country during the 7th Five Year Plan period and Peddapuram was selected to establish Navodaya Vidyalaya. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya.

Notable people[edit]

 

PITHAPURAM

Pithapuram or Peetika Puram is a town and a municipality in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The town also forms a part of Godavari Urban Development Authority. The temple town is one of fifty five Sakti Peetikas.[4]

Shripada Shri Vallabha, believed to be an incarnation of Lord Dattatreya by his devotees, lived in Pithapuram.[5] He is considered one of the first complete avatars (incarnations) of the deity Dattatreya in Kali Yuga.[6]

History[edit]

Pithapuram was originally called Pishtapura. The earliest extant inscription to mention the city is the 4th century king Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar inscription, which states that he defeated the king Mahendra of Pishtapura.[7] The inscriptions of the 4th and 5th century Vasishtha and Mathara dynasties also mention Pishtapura, describing it as a part of Kalinga.[8][7] In the 7th century, the Chalukya king Pulakeshin II annexed Pishtapura to his kingdom.[7]

The town hosts temple of Puruhitika devi. It is one among 108 shakti peethas.

Geography[edit]

Pithapuram is located at 17.1167°N 82.2667°E.[9] It has an average elevataion of 10 meters (33 feet). It is located near several beaches though not one in particular. It is in between 2 major cities; Kakinada and Raja mahendra varam. Pithapuram is landlocked and most of the economic activity takes place in Kakinada. Pithapuram is also well known for the CBM Christian Medical Centre which was started by Missionary Doctor Dr. E. Smith.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 52,360. The total population constitute, 25,891 males, 26,469 females and 5,116 children, in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 75.00% with 35,434 literates, higher than the national average of 73.00%.[3][10]

Transport[edit]

Pithapuram railway station is classified as a D–category stations in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[11]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[12][13] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

 

RAMACHANDRAPURAM

Ramachandrapuram is a town in East Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The town is a Municipality which serves as the headquarters of Ramachandrapuram mandal and Ramachandrapuram revenue division.[3]

Geography[edit]

Ramachandrapuram is located at 16.85°N 82.02°E.[4] It has an average elevation of 10 metres (32 feet).

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 43,657. The total population constitute, 21,544 males, 22,113 females and 3,994 children, in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 82.25% with 32,623 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[5]

Transport[edit]

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Ramachandrapuram bus station.[6]

Education[edit]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[7][8] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

 

SAMLAKOTA

Samalkota is a town in East Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The town also forms a part of Godavari Urban Development Authority.[2] Previously spelled as Samulcottah[3]

Geography[edit]

Samarlakota is located at 17.0500°N 82.1833°E.[4] It has an average elevation of 9 meters (32 feet).

Transport[edit]

WAM 4 series loco at Samarlakota Junction

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Samalkota bus station.[5] Samarlakota railway station is an important railway junction on the Visakhapatnam-Vijayawada section of Howrah-Chennai main line. The railway line to Kakinada branches at this railway junction.One more advantage is Bus Station and Railway Station are situated opposite to each other.The nearest airport, at 64 km (40 mi), is in Rajahmundry, and the nearest international airport, 161 km (100 mi), is Visakhapatnam (Vizag).

Demographics[edit]

Samalkot is a Municipal town in district of East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh. The Samalkota is divided into 18 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. The Samalkot Municipality has population of 56,864 of which 28,115 are males while 28,749 are females as per report released by Census India 2011.

Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 5793 which is 10.19% of total population of Samalkot (M). In Samalkot Municipality, Female Sex Ratio is of 1023 against state average of 993. Moreover Child Sex Ratio in Samalkot is around 948 compared to Andhra Pradesh state average of 939. Literacy rate of Samalkot is 74.58% higher than state average of 67.02%. In Samalkot, Male literacy is around 78.77% while female literacy rate is 70.51%.

Governance[edit]

Samalkot Municipality has total administration over 16,044 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage. It is also authorized to build roads within Municipality limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction.

Temples/Churches/mosque=> Sri Chalukya Kumararaama Sri Bheemeswara swami vaari temple, prasanna aanjaneya swami temple, Ganapati Temple, Mehar complex, mutyalamma temple, Sai Baba Temple, station centre, are famous temples in Samalkot. Centenary Baptist Church, Augustana Lutheran church & Andhra Baptist Churches are famous churches in Samalkot.

Education[edit]

The first boarding school was established in 1882[6] by the Canadian Baptist Mission[7] known as the C. B. M. Boys' School[8]. Notable among those who were associated includes A. B. Masilamani[9] and also his Teacher Chetty Bhanumurthy.[9]

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[10][11] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

 

THUNI

Tuni is a town in East Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a major commercial marketing center for more than 40 surrounding villages in the district. Tuni is a border point for the district of East Godavari. It is known for mango export, with nearly 250 varieties. It is also famous for betel leaves and jute bags. A variety of cashew nuts are produced in Tuni.

History[edit]

Tuni may be a historical site dated back to 1st century CE in connection with Buddhism, which flourished in the nearby hillocks and villages such as Gopalapatnam, Satyavaram and KummariLova near the city of Tuni on the banks of Thandava River. The Buddhist monks would have resided in Kummarilova village (Kummararam) from the 2nd century CE to 6th century CE and propagated Buddhism. The Buddhist 'aramas' and 'stupas' found in the village are testimony for their presence, they said. This village is being called 'Panchasheela Buddhist centre' as five Buddhist 'stupas' were found here in recent times. Archaeology authorities have found a Buddhist site at Kummarilova of Tuni during a general survey carried out recently[when?] in the area.

Under the Kshatriyas of Vatsavai Dynasty, it was a Pargana (a sub-division in 15th century) in Keemarseema. After the division it became the capital of Kottam Estate. Tuni has been a famous marketplace since 19th century CE.

Tuni Railway station has an important prominence on the Howrah-Madras railway line during the time of British India and after Independence.

Raja kalasala in Tuni is one of the oldest school in Tuni, with a history of more than 100 years. One of the prominent guerrilla war fighter at the time of Bharat independence, Alluri Sitarama Raju, studied there. A statue of him was built at a junction.

Demographics[edit]

As per the 2011 census, Tuni Municipality had population of 53,425 of which 25,922 were males while 27,503 were females. Literacy rate of Tuni city is 77.40% higher than state average of 67.02% with a male literacy rate of 82.79% while the female literacy rate is 72.38%.[3]

Geography[edit]

Tuni is at 17.35°N 82.55°E. It has an average elevation of 16 metres (46 ft)

Economy[edit]

A famous, and one of the oldest, sugar factories of Andhra Pradesh "Tandava Sugars" is here. A large number of handloom industries, about 20 cashew nut industries, hetero industries, and 10 other chemical industries are in and around Tuni.

Assembly constituency[edit]

Main article=> Tuni (Assembly constituency)

Tuni is an assembly constituency (consisting of mandals=> Kotananduru, Tuni and Thondangi) in Andhra Pradesh. There were 163,024 registered voters in Tuni constituency in the 1999 elections.

Transport[edit]

Tuni railway station

National Highway 16, a part of Golden Quadrilateral highway network, bypasses the town.[4] The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Tuni bus station.[5] Tuni lies on the major line of VijayawadaVisakhapatnam line, being a part of ChennaiHowrah line.

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[6][7] Instruction is in English or Telugu.

Notable people[edit]

YELESWARAM

NAGAR PANCHAYATH

Yeleswaram or Elesvaram is a Town and a Mandal in the East Godavari district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.[2]

A freedom fighter and Indian National Congress Leader Chandaka Apparao belongs to this place.

Yeleru river at Yeleswaram project site

Geography[edit]

Yelesvaram is located at 17.2833°N 82.1000°E.[3] It has an average elevation of 60 meters (200 feet)

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