Palakkad district of Kerala, South India. It is the headquarters of Chittur taluk, situated 13 km away from Palakkad towards the south-east, on the banks of Kannadipuzha, a major headstream of Bharathapuzha, the second longest river in Kerala. It was once part of the erstwhile Kingdom of Cochin.
Chittoor is a city and district headquarters in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also the mandal and divisional headquarters of Chittoor mandal and Chittoor revenue division, respectively. The city has a population of 2,89,625 and that of the agglomeration is 3,53,766.
After the Indian independence in 1947, Chittoor became a part of the erstwhile Madras state. The modern Chittoor District was formerly North Arcot District, which was established by the British in the 19th century had Chittoor as its headquarters . On 1 April 1911, district was split into Chittoor district and North Arcot District.
The district abounds in several pre-historic sites. The surface finds discovered are assigned to special stages in the progress of civilization. Paleolithic tools were discovered at Tirupathi, Sitarampeta, Ellampalle, Mekalavandlapalle, Piler, etc. Mesolithic tools were discovered at Chinthaparthi, Moratavandlapalle, Aruvandlapalle, Tirupathi etc. Remains of Neolithic and ancient tools were unearthed near Bangarupalem. The existence of megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of burials at Irulabanda, Bapanatham, Valimikipuram (Vayalpadu), Sodum, Velkuru, Nyakaneri, Basinikonda, etc.
The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas in the 4th century BC. The district of Chittoor was not a homogeneous administrative unit up to 1911. Its component parts were under the control of various principal dynasties at different periods of times, namely, the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Cholas, Pandyas, Royal of Vijayanagara, Qutub Shahis, Mughals, Asof Jahis, Marathas, Hyder Ali and Tipu of Mysore, and the British, besides minor dynasties such as the Renande Cholas, Banas, Vaidumbas, Nolambas, Western Gangas, Yadavas, Telugu Cholas, Matlis, Uttama Chola, Andiyaman, Siyaganga rulers, Nawabs of Kadapa and Arcot. The Zamindars of Karvetinagar, Srikalahasthi, Punganur and Kangundhi also ruled over this district.
It is located between the northern latitudes of 37" and 14°8" and between the eastern longitudes 78°33" and 79°55". It is bounded on the east by Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh and South by Vellore, Thiruvallur Districts of Tamil Nadu, on the west by Kolar and Chikkaballapur Districts of Karnataka, on the North Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh and on the south by Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu. In respect of area it takes the eighth place with an area of 15,150 Square Kilometers which accounts for 5.51 percent of the total area of the state. The general elevation of the mountainous part of the district is 2500 feet above sea level. The Chennai & Bangalore cities are located in 150 km. and 165 km. respectively to Chittoor Town.
Telugu is the official and widely spoken language.Chittoor has a population of 353,766 and has a sex ratio of 1002 females per 1000 males compared to the state average of 992 females, as of 2011 census. The literacy rate of the City is 90.60%. Chittoor was upgraded as municipal corporation in 2011.
Chittoor Municipal Corporation is the civic administrative body of the city. It was constituted as a Grade–III municipality in the year 1917. It was upgraded to Grade–II in 1950, Grade–I in 1965, Special Grade in 1980 and Selection Grade in 2000. On 7 July 2012, it was upgraded to municipal corporation by merging 14 gram panchayats into the corporation and is spread over an area of 69.75 km2 (26.93 sq mi).
Agriculture near Chittoor
Chittoor is the district capital and houses many district level government institutions.
Chittoor is predominantly an agro-market place and a major market for mango, grain, sugarcane, and peanut. Other industries include oilseed, poultry and milk. Tomato farming contributing over 20% of the State's production. Ground nut is the most major commercial crop in the district followed by sugarcane and the major horticulture crop of mangoes. 2nd largest milk producing district with its expansive dairy industries. In the field of Dairy, the district stood first in the state. The district is famous also for textile industries like that of Silk with 13,000 power looms providing employment 40,000 workers. Granite industry famous for its black, pink and grey granites.
The 11th century historical Chandragiri Fort is the notable landmark near the city.
The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English and Telugu.
APS RTC bus on Chittoor Roads
The city is well connected to major cities through national and state highways. The National Highways through Chittoor City are, National Highway 40 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kadapa and Kurnool on North and connecting Vellore and Chennai on South National Highway 69 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kolar and Bangalore on West National Highway 140 (India) connecting Chittoor with Tirupati and Nellore on East. The city has total road length of 382.30 km.
The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Chittoor bus station. Bus services are operated to Kanipakam, Tirupati, Madanapalli, Palamaner, Piler, Puttur, Kuppam, Srikalahasti, Nellore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Kanchipuram, Chennai, Puducherry, Kolar, Bangalore, Mysore, Kurnool, Kadapa, Anantapur, Hydrabad, Hanumakonda, Warangal, Vijayawada, Guntur, Ongole, Rajahmundry, Amaravati and also to all other major towns and cities in the Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Puducherry and Telangana states.
Railways Chittoor railway station is a National railway station in Chittoor city of Andhra Pradesh. It lies on Gudur-Katpadi Branch line section and is administered under Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone. Nearest Major Railway Junction is Katpadi Junction railway station Tamil Nadu. Just 30 km from Chittoor city. There are direct trains daily from Chittoor to Vijayawada, Kakinada, Kacheguda (Hyderabad), Bengaluru, Thiruvananthapuram, New Delhi to Kanyakumari HimSagar Express and weekly/biweekly/triweekly trains connect Chittoor with Mannargudi, Jammu, Katra, Tirunelveli, Mangalore, Ernakulam, Visakhapatnam, Hatia Ranchi, Santragachi (Kolkata) and Jayanthi Janata express, etc. which run through Chittoor.
Tirupati (/\u02c8t\u026ar\u028ap\u0252t\u026a/ (listen)) is a city in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Tirupati (urban) mandal, and of the Tirupati revenue division. As of 2011census, it had a population of 374,260, making it the ninth most populous city in Andhra Pradesh. It is the seventh most urban agglomerated city in the state, with a population of 459,985. Tirupati is considered one of the holiest Hindu pilgrimage sites because of Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, besides other historical temples, and is referred to as the "Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh". Tirupati is also home to many educational institutions and universities. For the year 2012–13, India's Ministry of Tourism named Tirupati as the "Best Heritage City". Tirupati has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart cityunder Smart Cities Mission by Government of India.
Tirumala (Upper Tirupati) This town was an established centre of Vaishnavism around the 5th century A.D. during which it was praised by Alvars. The temple rites were formalised by the Vaishnavite saint Ramanujacharyain the 11th century CE. Tirupati survived the Muslim invasions. During the early 1300s Muslim invasion of South India, the deity of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping. The temple town for most of the medieval era part of Vijayanagara Empire till 17th century and its rulers contributed considerable resources and wealth notable by Krishna Deva Raya and Achyuta Deva Raya, Sadasiva Raya and Tirumala Deva Raya.
The temple was built and upgraded in parts by various kingdoms. The inscriptions in the temple were found in Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil and Kannada languages  which specify the contributions of the Pallava Kingdom around the 9th century AD, Chola Kingdomaround the 10th century AD and the Vijayanagara Empire in the 14th century AD. During the 15th century, Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya sung many songs in praise of the holy town in Telugu. He compared it to be divine, including the rocks, streams, trees, animals, and adds that it is heaven on the earth. One example of such a song is=>
In 1932, Tirumala Venkateswara Temple was handed over to Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams by the TTD Act of 1932. In 2006, Tirupati Urban Development Authority (TUDA) and TTD together conducted "Tirupati Utsavam" which focused on the history of development of Tirupati town, kings who visited Tirumala and their contribution for development of the temple. The fourth World Telugu Conference, a conference for furtherance of Telugu language, was conducted at Tirupati during December, 2012 for three days. In January, 2017, the 104th Indian Science Congress (ISCA) meeting was held in Tirupati.
Tirupati is located at 13.65°N 79.42°E in the Chittoor District of South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. It lies at the foot of Seshachalam Hills of Eastern Ghats which were formed during Precambrian era. One of its suburbs Tirumala, which is the home to Sri Venkateswara Temple, is also located within the hills. Tirupati Urban agglomeration includes Tirupati (City) and census towns Akkarampalle, Avilala, Cherlopalle, Mangalam, Perur, Settipalle, Thummala gunta (part), Timminaidupalle, Tiruchanur, Tirupati (NMA). Tirupati is surrounded by Srikalahasti towards the East, Puttur towards the South, Poothalapattu towards the west and the Seshachalam hills towards the North. Swarnamukhi River originates in Chandragiri Hills and passes through the Tirupati City before reaching Srikalahasti in the East.
Sir Thomas Munro was first collector of Cuddapah. He constructed a small thatched house at the present Collector's bunglow and visited Madanapalle every summer. Madanapalle (Telugu=>\u0c2e\u0c26\u0c28\u0c2a\u0c32\u0c4d\u0c32\u0c46) or MandanaPalle Mandal (Mdl code-35) , is a mandal HQ, town and a Municipality in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. There are 21 villages in this mandal and the list is 1 Chinnathippasamudram (CTM), 2 Kasiraopeta, 3 Kothavaripalle, 4 Pothapolu, 5 Venkappakota, 6 Bandameeda kammapalle @, 7 Kollabylu, 8 Ponnetipalem, 9 Chippili, 10 Pappireddipalle, 11 Kammapalle, 12 Basini konda, 13 Pamaiahgaripalle, 14 Molakaladinne, 15 Valasapalle, 16 Madanapalle (rural), 17 Ankisettipalle, 18 Vem palle, 19 Malepadu, 20 Penchupadu, 21 Theneegalavaripalle population 107,512 (2001 census). Legend has it that the name of the town was originally " Maryaada raamanna puram" which has over time, changed into " Madanapalle". In 1850, Madanapalle was developed as subdivision and F.B.Manoly was the first Sub Collector. The town experienced several natural calamities like floods, famines and epidemics.
Rabindranath Tagore translated "Jana Gana Mana" from Bengali to English and also set it to music in Madanapalle. The National Anthem was written by Rabindranath Tagore as early as in 1911 and was sung at the annual session of the Indian National Congress at Calcutta on 27 December that year. But it was actually done in Besant Theosophical College, Madanapalle, where Tagore stayed for few days in February 1919 that the now familiar tune was set. It was Margaret Cousins, wife of educationist, Dr. James Henry Cousins, who composed the tune for "Jana Gana Mana". Dr.J H Cousins was then the Principal of the Madanapalle College that was established by Dr. Annie Besant.
It is located at an average elevation of 695 m (2,280 ft) above mean sea level.
As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 180,180. The total population constitute, 90,700 males, 89,480 females and 13,448 children, in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 81.40% with 99,486 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%. Telugu and Urdu both are spoken.
The municipality was formed on 1 April 1961 and is spread over an area of 14.20 km2 (5.48 sq mi). There are 35 election wards represented by a councilor. Madanapalle urban agglomeration is spread over an area of 23.44 km2 (9.05 sq mi). Its constituents include the municipality of Madanapalle, the out growths of Ankisettipalle, Chippili, Pamaiahgaripalle, Papireddipalle, Venkappakota, partial out growths of Basinikonda, Kollabylu, Ponnetipalem and Madanapalle (rural).
Madanapalle is an assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh and the constituency number is 283.
The economy is based on agriculture and main products include tomato, mango, groundnut, tamarind and silk saris. Madanapalle is famous for agricultural products such as tomato, mango, groundnut, tamarind etc., Madanapalle is the biggest tomato market in Asia. The tomatoes from here are supplied to the most of the southern states & some of the northern states of India.
It is also famous for silk and silk products like saris and other casuals. The quality of silk product is recognizable. You can purchase silk sarees here at production cost. These are supplied to all major cities in South India including Bangalore, Chennai and all silk product towns for sales. Madanapalle surroundings have enormous reserves of granite.
Madanapalle is very well connected by road and rail. There are three Bus terminals in Madanapalle. State owned APSRTC buses run to different parts of the district, state and interstate - Hyderabad (TS), Bangalore (KA), Mysore (KA), Bellary (KA) and Chennai (TN), Vellore (TN). Madanapalle Road Railway Station (MPL) is situated on Dharmavarm - Pakala Branch line and all trains stop here. Trains are available here to travel to Secunderabad, Guntakal, Tirupati, Vijayawada. Daily trains are available from and to Guntakal & Tirupati. Other nearest Railway Station is Kurabalakota Railway Station where only Passenger trains stops.
The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.
There are more theaters, Sri Sai Chitra, A.S.R Theater, Sunil Theater, Sree Krishna Theater, MSR Movie Land, Sidhartha Theatre, Ravi Theatre, Mini Sidhartha. Madanapalle has long standing educational institutions like Besant Theosophical College, Rishi Valley School, a boarding school, founded by the philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti,  and Zilla Parishad High School, which was founded in 1924, Vasishta School (ICSE, AP State Syllabus) which was founded in 1981. It also has four engineering colleges - Madanapalle Institute of Technology and Science, Sir Vishveshwaraiah Institute of Science & Technology, Aditya College of Engineering, Golden Valley Integrated Campus .
Nagari is located at 13.33°N 79.58°E. It has an average elevation of 116 metres (380 feet). It is 3rd Grade Municipality in the Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. It is spread over an area of 25.6 Sq.Km. With a population of 62275 ( 2011 Census). It is famous for Cotton weaving Sarees, Lungies, Dress Material, Desamma Temple, Kariyamanikyam Venkateswara Swmay Temple(TTD),SaiBaba Temple and Bananas
It is location 444 km from Capital City and 67 km from District Headquarters. It was establishment as a 3rd grade municipality in the year 2005. There are 4 zones and 27 election wards in this municipality
Nagari is located at 13 degrees/ 33 minutes’ North 79 degrees/58 minutes East. It has average elevation of 144 meters, Nagari is situated on the Tirupati to Chennai Highway and 50 km from tirupati and 95 km distance from Nagari to Chennai.
Nagari Town, in general has a tropical climate, winters last from November to February, while summers last from March to June. The annual rainfall 11.62 mm, most of it received during the months of October/November & December.
The Population of the town which was 56832 in 2001 increased to 62275 in 2011 with an increase of 8.74% in the last decade. The sex ratio is 985 females per 1000 males. The literacy rate is 77.85 %.
"GANESH Temple" in Yedhulasantha Veedhi, "Sri Venkateswara Swamy" Temple at Santha Street Starting, Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple Opposite side of Mallika Sari Centre, Pedha Veedhi, Shiva Temple at Santha Gate, "Gangamma Temple" at Santha before santha gate or beside of Sri Venkateswara Swamy Temple. "Maaremma Temple" at Maremma Gudi street, near Bus Stand. "Shani Mahathma Temple" beside palamaner of Gantavuru Village.
Palamaneru meant for lot of Historical Churches and mission schools. Mission Compound Grounds, CSI Church opposite to Govt Bus stand.
GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS Lot of Anganwadi and primary schools in Palamaner and high schools are in below. 1) North (B)High School 2) South (G) High School 3) Govt. Z.P. High School 4) Urdu High School
PRIVATE SCHOOLS 1) EMMAUS SWISS 2)Sarada 3) Brahma rishi 4) Kesava Reddy 5) Elena Bettini 6) Little Flower 7) Adharsha 8) Chaithanya 9) Ravindra Bharathi 10)Narayana 11)Little Angel's
1) O.L.L. Upper primary and High school.
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The name "Palamaner" originated from "Pallava Yeru", meaning lake dug by Pallavas. "Yeru" in Telugu means lake. Palamaner is also known as Milk City of South India.
Palamaner is located in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh at 13.2000°N 78.7500°E. It has an average elevation of 683 meters (2,244 ft). Being close to Karnataka and Tamil Nadu state borders, people here bear a mixed culture.
The minimum temperature hovers between 12 and 28 degrees all round the year. The climate here varies seasonally and is invariably moderate which makes the inhabitants uncomplaining.
Palamaner is famous for terracotta pots.Also Palamaner falls under Bangalore - Chennai Highway , Bangalore -Vijayawada /Tirupathi/vizag highway ,Ananthapur-Chennai Highway and Kurnool - Kuppam Highway Also as this area is majorly farmed,there is a Vegetable market associated primarily to promote Tomato. Tomota market is famous, and is largest and busiest Market in Chittoor district followed by Madanapalli market Palamaner the closest place to Bangalore ,lies in centre to metro's ,Palamaner is 132 km from Bengaluru, 191KM from Chennai and 110Km from Tirupathi. Has the only temple for Navagraha Temple in Rayalaseema. Milk city of south India (Tirumala, Dodla, Gowardhan, etc., milk dairies established in Palamaner) Ancient natural paralysis treatment available at Virupakshapuram, Nellipatla, which is 20 km from Palamaner. Mogali Ghat is very dangerous and has check post, in that check post checks all type of large travels of lorries.
An ancient Sri Venkateswara (KONETIRAYA SWAMY) temple is close by in Keelapatla village (7.5 km). The idol in the temple resembles the lord in Tirumala. This temple is now under TTD Administration. A holy place must visit. Gundlapalli village famous for silkworm farms(7 km).
As of 2011 India census, Punganur had a population of 70,000. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Punganur has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%=> male literacy is 71%, and female literacy is 56%. In Punganur, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Main article=> Punganur (Assembly constituency)
Punganur Assembly constituency is a constituency of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 14 constituencies in Chittoor district. Punganur panchayat was up graded to 3rd Grade Municipality on 19 January 1985.No Transport services Depends on other bus depot.
Punganur has no Bus Depot, though there are lot of people travel to Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, etc. are dependent on Buses from Madanapalle, Palamaneru Depot buses. Because of political issues.
There is no Rail services. Roads in the city were very narrow, congested.
Srikalahasti is a holy town in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipality and the mandal headquarters of Srikalahasti mandal in Tirupati revenue division. The town is a part of Tirupati Urban Development Authority, which is located on the banks of the River Swarnamukhi. The Srikalahasti Temple is one of the important ancient Shiva temples of Southern India.
This Srikalahasti town is named after Sri (spider), Kala (snake) and Hasti (elephant) that once worshiped Shiva Lingam here and attained Moksham.
The Srikalahasti temple was originally built during Pallava period and the current structures were built by Chola king Kulothunga Cholan I, II and III during the 11th century. A huge hundred pillared mantapam was built by Sri Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara dynasty during the 16th century, an important feature of this shrine.
A historical reference to this temple occurs in the works of Nakkeerar, a Tamil poet during the Tamil Sangam Dynasty. He called it as Southern Kailash. Nakkeera composed hundreds of Tamil stanzas to praise Srikalahasteeswara. Dhoorjati, a Telugu poet native of this place and one among the ashtadiggajas of Sri Krishnadevaraya's court, composed a hundred stanzas on Sri Kalahasteeswara.
As per another legend, Vayu and Adishesha had a dispute to find out who is superior, to prove the superiority Adishesha encircled the Kailasam, Vayu tried to remove this encircle by creating Twister. Because of the twister, 8 parts from kailasam fell into 8 different places which are Trincomalee, Srikalahasti, Tiruchirappalli, Thiruenkoimalai, Rajathagiri, Neerthagiri, Ratnagiri, and Swethagiri Thirupangeeli.
Swarnamukhi river and the bridge at Srikalahasti
As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 80,056. The total population constitute, 38,995 males and 41,061 females — a sex ratio of 1053 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 8,224 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 4,227 are boys and 3,997 are girls — a ratio of 946 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 78.66% (male 85.15%; female 72.57%) with 56,501 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.
The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government-aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English and Telugu.
Sri Kalahasteeswara Institute of Technology entrance
Srikalahasthi has educational institutions ranging from elementary schools to engineering and degree colleges. Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology is an engineered by Srikalahasteeswara Trust board.
The town depends mainly on agriculture and tourism. The main crops are paddy, sugar cane and ground nuts. Hundreds of Kalamkari artists also bring some revenue. Pilgrims visiting the Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala also visit the Srikalahasti temple.
Srikalahasti is famous for Kalamkari textiles.
Srikalahasti railway station is located on the Gudur-Katpadi Branch line section of Guntakal (GTL) Division of the South Central Railway (SCR). Andhra Pradesh State owned Bus services APSRTC operates buses from Tirupati, Chittoor and Nellore.
Tirupati Airport is located within 25 km